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Nano Labs Ltd

Date Filed : Jun 10, 2022

F-11d33263df1.htmFORM F-1Form F-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 10, 2022

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

Under

TheSecurities Act of 1933

 

 

Nano Labs Ltd

(Exact nameof Registrant as specified in its Constitution)

 

 

 

Cayman Islands 3674 Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of (Primary Standard Industrial (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization) Classification Code Number) Identification Number)

 

 

30th Floor, Dikaiyinzuo

No. 29, East Jiefang Road,

Hangzhou, Zhejiang

People’s Republic of China

(86) 0571-8665 6957

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Cogency Global Inc.

122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor

New York, NY 10168

(800) 221-0102

(Name,address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Dan Ouyang, Esq.

Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati

Professional Corporation

Unit 2901, 29F, Tower C, Beijing Yintai Centre

No. 2 Jianguomenwai Avenue

Chaoyang District, Beijing 100022

People’s Republic of China

(86) 10-6529-8300

 

Stephanie Tang, Esq.

Hogan Lovells

11th Floor, One Pacific Place

88 Queensway Road

Hong Kong

+852 22190888

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under theSecurities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is filed to register additionalsecurities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list theSecurities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Ifthis Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the sameoffering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of theSecurities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registranthas elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until theRegistrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act, as amended, or until the registration statement shallbecome effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a) may determine.

 

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the FinancialAccounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed.These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in anyjurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion. Dated            , 2022

American Depositary Shares

 

LOGO

Nano Labs Ltd

Representing                 Class A Ordinary Shares

 

 

This is an initial public offering of American depositary shares, or ADSs, representing Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 pershare, or Class A ordinary shares, of Nano Labs Ltd.

We are offering                    ADSs representing                    Class A ordinary shares to be sold in this offering. Each ADS represents         of ourClass A ordinary share(s).

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the ADSs or our shares. It is currentlyestimated that the initial public offering price per ADS will be between US$         and US$        . We intend to apply to list the ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Marketunder the symbol “NA.”

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under applicable U.S. securities laws and areeligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, our issued andoutstanding share capital will consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. EachClass A ordinary share will be entitled to one vote, and each Class B ordinary share shall be entitled to 15 votes on all matters subject to a vote at general meetings of our company. Each Class B ordinary share shall beconvertible into Class A ordinary share at any time at the option of the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares shall not be convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances.

Additionally, upon the completion of this offering, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under corporate governance rules ofNasdaq Stock Market, because Mr. Jianping Kong will beneficially own     % of our then-issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares and will be able to exercise     % of the total voting power ofour issued and outstanding ordinary shares immediately after the consummation of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise its option to purchase additional ADSs. For further information, see “Principal Shareholders.”

We are exposed to legal and operational risks associated with our operations in China. The PRC government has significant authority to exertinfluence on the ability of a company with operations in China, including us, to conduct its business. Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could materially and adversely affect our business andresults of operations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals of offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of PCAOB inspection on our auditors. OurU.S.-based auditor, MaloneBailey, LLP, is not among the PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in China and Hong Kong that are subject to PCAOB’s determination issued on December 16, 2021 of having been unable to inspect orinvestigate completely. However, we could still face the risk of delisting and cease of trading of our securities from a stock exchange or an over-the-counter market in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and thesecurities regulations promulgated thereunder if the PCAOB determines in the future that it is unable to completely inspect or investigate our auditor which has a presence in China. These China-related risks could result in a material change in ouroperations and/or the value of our securities, or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless.In particular, recent policy statements and regulatory actions by the PRC government, such as those related to the cryptocurrency mining business, may adversely impact our ability to conduct our business, accept foreign investments, or list on aU.S. or other foreign stock exchange, which may cause the ADSs to be prohibited from trading or to be delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market or any other U.S. stock exchange. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business inChina.”

In particular, the PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervenewith or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries, including thecryptocurrency industry, which may severely restrict our ability to expand our business or serve our customers in China. We cannot assure you that government authorities in China will not introduce further enhanced regulation over the cryptocurrencyindustry that may lead to our inability to operate in China at all. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities andforeign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of suchsecurities to significantly decline or in extreme cases, become worthless.

Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities ofour subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. Nano Labs Ltd is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct ouroperations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and one of our subsidiaries in Hong Kong. Such structure involves unique risks to investors in the ADSs. Investors may never directly hold equity interests in our PRC subsidiaries withsubstantive operations. We also cannot assure you that the Chinese regulatory authorities will not disallow such a structure. If the Chinese regulatory authorities disallow the structure, it would likely result in a material change in our operationsand cause the value of the ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Governance.”

Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries has obtained the approval or clearance from either the China Securities Regulatory Commission or theCyberspace Administration of China for this offering, and we do not intend to obtain the approval or clearance from any of such or other regulators in China in connection with this offering. We cannot assure you, however, that regulators in Chinawill not subsequently require us to undergo the approval or clearance procedures and subject us to penalties for non-compliance. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Conducting Business inChina—Recent regulatory developments in China may subject us to additional regulatory review or otherwise restrict or completely hinder our ability to offer securities and raise capitals overseas, all of which could materially and adverselyaffect our business and cause the value of the ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless.” and “—Risks Relating to the ADSs and this Offering—The approval of or clearance by the CSRC, the CAC and other complianceprocedures may be required in connection with this offering, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or clearance.”

The structure of cash flows within our organization, and the applicable regulations, are as follows. After foreign investors’ funds enterNano Labs Ltd, our holding company, at the close of this offering, subject to the cash demand of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries, the funds can be transferred to our wholly owned Cayman subsidiaries, then to our wholly owned BVI subsidiaries,then to our Hong Kong subsidiaries, which will further distribute the funds to our PRC subsidiaries. If we intend to distribute dividends, PRC subsidiaries will transfer the dividends to our Hong Kong subsidiaries in accordance with the laws andregulations of the PRC, and then our Hong Kong subsidiaries will transfer the dividends all the way up to Nano Labs Ltd, and the dividends will be distributed from Nano Labs Ltd to all shareholders respectively in proportion to the shares they hold,regardless of whether the shareholders are U.S. investors or investors in other countries or regions. The cross-border transfer of funds within our corporate group under our direct holding structure must be legal and compliant with relevant laws andregulations of China. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to ouraffiliated entities only through loans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factor—Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China—PRC regulation of loans toand direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRCsubsidiaries and affiliated entities.” In 2020 and 2021, we transferred cash proceeds of nil and US$21.1 million to our PRC subsidiaries for the settlement of intercompany transactions and as paid-in capital for our PRC subsidiaries, and noneof our PRC subsidiaries has issued any dividends or distributions to respective holding companies or any investors as of the date of this prospectus. We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeablefuture after this offering. We have, from time to time, transferred cash between our PRC subsidiaries to fund their operations, and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between such subsidiaries. As ofthe date of this prospectus, no cash generated from our PRC subsidiaries has been used to fund operations of any of our non-PRC subsidiaries. We may encounter difficulties in our ability to transfer cash between PRC subsidiaries and non-PRCsubsidiaries largely due to various PRC laws and regulations imposed on foreign exchange. However, as long as we are compliant with the procedures for approvals from foreign exchange authorities and banks in China, the relevant laws and regulationsin China do not impose limitations on the amount of funds that we can transfer out of China. We currently do not have any cash management policy that dictate the transfer of cash between our subsidiaries. See “Regulation—PRC Laws andRegulations relating to Foreign Exchange” for details of such procedures.

See “Risk Factors”on page 17 to read about factors you should consider before buying the ADSs.

 

 

Neither theUnited States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

   

Per ADS

   

Total

 

Initial public offering price

  US$                US$              

Underwriting discounts andcommissions(1)

  US$                US$              

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

  US$                US$              

 

(1)

See “Underwriting” for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

To the extent that the underwriters sell morethan                     ADSs in this offering, the underwriters have an option to purchase up to anadditional                     ADSs from us at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment in U.S. dollars in New York, New York on or about            , 2022.

 

AMTD

 Maxim Group LLC Tiger Brokers

 

 

Prospectus dated            , 2022


Table of Contents

LOGO


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

   Page 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

   1 

RISK FACTORS

   17 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

   67 

USE OF PROCEEDS

   69 

DIVIDEND POLICY

   71 

CAPITALIZATION

   72 

DILUTION

   74 

ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

   76 

CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

   78 

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

   79 

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

   82 

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

   98 

LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN AND CEO

   107 

BUSINESS

   110 

REGULATION

   124 

MANAGEMENT

   134 

PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS

   142 

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

   144 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

   145 

DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

   165 

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

   177 

TAXATION

   179 

UNDERWRITING

   186 

EXPENSES RELATING TO THIS OFFERING

   198 

LEGAL MATTERS

   199 

EXPERTS

   200 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

   201 

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   F-1 

 

 

Until              , 2022 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), alldealers that buy, sell or trade ADSs, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect totheir unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

 

You should relyonly on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information differentfrom that contained in this prospectus or in any related free-writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, andseeking offers to buy the ADSs offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted and lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of thetime of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the ADSs.

Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit thisoffering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where other action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come intopossession of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outsidethe United States.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the informationthat you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in the ADSs, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and theinformation set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” This prospectus contains information from an industry report commissionedby us and prepared by Frost & Sullivan, an independent research firm, to provide information regarding our industry and our market position in China. We refer to this report as the F&S report.

Our Mission

Our mission is to provideubiquitous computing power to the Metaverse computing network with our fabless logic-memory integrated circuits.

Overview

We are a leading fabless integrated circuit, or IC, design company and product solution provider in China. We are committed to the developmentof high throughput computing, or HTC, chips, high performance computing, or HPC, chips, distributed computing and storage solutions, smart network interface cards, or NICs, vision computing chips and distributed rendering. We have built acomprehensive flow processing unit, or FPU, architecture which offers solution that integrates the features of both HTC and HPC. Moreover, our Cuckoo series are one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximumbandwidth of approximately 2.27 Tbps, as well as one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grin mining market, according to the F&S report. In June 2021, we established IPOLLO PTE. LTD., our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary in Singapore, tofacilitate our business expansion in the overseas IC markets.

The fabless model of semiconductor production has become increasinglypopular as it allows companies to focus on IC design and avoid significant resource investments by sharing the existing manufacturing facilities of a third party. The market size of the global fabless IC design market, in terms of the sales revenue,increased from US$101.5 billion in 2017 to US$169.0 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 13.6%, according to the F&S report. Due to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies, such as artificial intelligence, Internet-of-things and blockchain, themarket size of the global fabless IC design market is expected to reach US$343.3 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 15.2% between 2021 and 2026, according to the same source. Moreover, China has taken a large share of the global fabless IC design marketin recent years and experienced a steady growth in revenue due to the development of design and manufacturing technology and government support. According to the F&S report, the market size of China’s fabless IC design market, in terms ofthe sales revenue of ICs, increased from RMB72.6 billion in 2017 to RMB181.3 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 25.7% and is expected to reach RMB468.6 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 20.9% between 2021 and 2026, according to the same source.

We have developed significant advantages in our business and technological capabilities, including the following:

 

  

We released our first generation of the Cuckoo series, Cuckoo 1.0, in the second quarter of 2020,which is one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 2.27 Tbps, as well as one of the first movers in the ASIC-based Grin mining market, according to the F&S report.

 

  

We completed the tape-out for Cuckoo 2.0 and launched the productin the fourth quarter of 2021. We are in the design process of Cuckoo 3.0, which is expected to be completed in 2023.

 

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We have completed the design of Darkbird 1.0 and have begun the delivery of Darkbird 1.0 in thefirst quarter of 2022. We are in the process of designing Darkbird 2.0.

 

  

Our proprietary HPC chips, Darkbird, embedded in our Bitcoin mining machine, iPollo, can achievehigh computing power with reduced size and increased power efficiency.

 

  

In the fourth quarter of 2021, we launched our Darksteel series, which can be applied to both industrialand commercial sectors by offering distributed computing and data storage solutions.

 

  

We have successfully designed our 40nm, 22nm and n+1 ASIC chips and our 38nm memory chip.

 

  

As of December 31, 2021, we had registered six software copyrights, four IC layout-design rights and five patentsin China, and applied for registration of 24 patents in China.

In the four months ended April 30, 2022, we recorded arevenue of RMB175.6 million (US$27.5 million) and received total prepayments of RMB833.2 million (US$130.7 million) for pre-sale of our products. Such financial information is prepared by our management and is the responsibility of our management.Our independent registered public accounting firm, MaloneBailey, LLP, has not performed any audit or review of such financial information in accordance with any generally accepted auditing or review standards, or performed any other procedures withrespect to such financial information.

Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors:

 

  

We are a leading fabless integrated circuit design company and product solution provider in China.

 

  

We can achieve a fasttime-to-market with our FPU Architecture.

 

  

We have strong supply chain management capabilities.

 

  

We can capture the market growth of Metaverse and its application scenarios.

 

  

We have a visionary management team and talented research and development team.

Growth Strategies

We intend to grow ourbusiness using the following key strategies:

 

  

Enhance our research and development capabilities.

 

  

Strengthen and expand the application of our chip products and solutions.

 

  

Selectively pursue international expansion.

 

  

Enhance our supply chain management.

 

  

Attract, cultivate and retain a talented and professional workforce.

Risks and Challenges

Investing in theADSs entails a significant level of risk. Before investing in the ADSs, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties summarized below, the risks described under the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 17 of, including therisks described under the subsections headed “—Risks Relating to Our Business,” “—Risks Relating to Our Operations,” “—Risks Relating to Our Industry,” “—Risks Relating to Conducting Business inChina,” “—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Governance,” and “—Risks Relating to the ADSs and This Offering,” and the other information contained in this prospectus before you decide whether to purchasethe ADSs.

Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations inChina but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. Nano Labs Ltd is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and one of oursubsidiaries in Hong Kong. Such structure involves unique risks

 

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to investors in the ADSs. Investors may never directly hold equity interests in our PRC subsidiaries with substantive operations. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our CorporateStructure and Governance—Investors in our ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company.”

We are exposed to legal and operational risks associated with our operations in China. The PRC government has significant authority toexert influence on the ability of a company with operations in China, including us, to conduct its business. Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could materially and adversely affect our businessand results of operations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals of offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of PCAOB inspection on our auditors.These China-related risks could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our securities, or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the valueof such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. In particular, recent policy statements and regulatory actions by the PRC government, such as those related to the cryptocurrency mining business, may adversely impact our ability toconduct our business, accept foreign investments, or list on a U.S. or other foreign stock exchange, which may cause the ADSs to be prohibited from trading or to be delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market or any other U.S. stock exchange.Additionally, the PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals.The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries, including the cryptocurrency industry, which may severely restrict our ability to expand our business or serve our customers in China. We cannotassure you that government authorities in China will not introduce further enhanced regulation over the cryptocurrency industry that may lead to our inability to operate in China at all. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated anintent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could significantly limitor completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or in extreme cases, become worthless.

Our financial statements contained in this registration statement on Form F-1, of which the prospectus forms a part, have been audited byMaloneBailey, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm that is headquartered in the United States with offices in Beijing and Shenzhen, China. MaloneBailey, LLP has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis and is not among thePCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in China and Hong Kong that are subject to PCAOB’s determination issued on December 16, 2021 of having been unable to inspect or investigate completely. However, as the PRC Securities Lawrequires approval from relevant PRC authorities for inspection of any audit working papers in China by foreign authorities, the audit working papers of our financial statements may not be inspected by the PCAOB, since the audit work was carried outby MaloneBailey, LLP with the collaboration of their China-based offices and the PCAOB has not obtained such requisite approval. We could still face the risk of delisting and cease of trading of our securities from a stock exchange or anover-the-counter market in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and the securities regulations promulgated thereunder if the PCAOB determines in the future that it is unable to completely inspect or investigate ourauditor which has a presence in China. The trading of the ADSs may be prohibited and the ADSs may be delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market or any other U.S. stock exchange under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unableto inspect auditors with presence in China. Additionally, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed a bill which, if passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law, would reduce the number of consecutive non-inspection years requiredfor triggering the prohibitions under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act from three years to two years. The prohibition of trading of the ADSs and the delisting of the ADSs, or the threat of their being prohibited or delisted, maymaterially and adversely affect the value of your

 

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investment. You should pay special attention to the subsection headed “Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China” below.

In particular, we face risks and challenges in the following aspects, including:

Risks Relating to Our Business

 

  

Uncertainties in our research and development activities.

 

  

Volatility of the cryptocurrency market.

 

  

Market conditions for HTC and HPC solutions market.

 

  

Constant technological changes in the industries we operate in.

 

  

Significant revenue contribution from our cryptocurrency mining machines.

 

  

Our reliance on limited suppliers.

Risks Relating to Our Operations

 

  

Our ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

 

  

Our ability to forecast our business and assess the seasonality and volatility in our business.

 

  

Ongoing global coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak.

 

  

Our ability to obtain significant financial resources.

 

  

Our ability to price our products at our desired margins.

 

  

Credit risks and concentration of credit risks in relation to defaults from counterparties.

 

  

Our ability to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively.

 

  

High customer concentration.

Risks Relating to Our Industry

 

  

Adverse changes in the regulatory environment in China.

 

  

Adverse changes of regulatory environment in foreign markets.

 

  

Increasing mining difficulty, which could result in downward pressure on the expected economic returns.

 

  

Concert actions, which could prevent new transactions from gaining confirmations, halt payments between users,and reverse previously completed transactions.

 

  

Challenges against decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies.

 

  

Change of algorithm and mining mechanism.

Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China

 

  

Recent regulatory developments in China, which may subject us to additional regulatory review.

 

  

Significant influence of PRC government over companies with China-based operations.

 

  

Possibility of delisting if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors with presence in China.

 

  

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government.

 

 

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Uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws, rules and regulations.

 

  

A severe or prolonged downturn in China’s economy.

 

  

Increased labor costs and enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations in China.

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Governance

 

  

Investors in the ADSs not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive businessoperations in China but instead equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company.

 

  

Custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, failing tofulfill their responsibilities.

 

  

Anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association.

 

  

Dual-class structure of our ordinary shares which could affect the trading market for the ADSs.

 

  

Less protection to shareholders due to our home country practices for corporate governance matters.

 

  

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

 

  

Reduced reporting requirements due to our emerging growth company status.

 

  

Our exemption from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies due to our foreign privateissuer status

Risks Relating to the ADSs and this Offering

 

  

Our ability to comply with the CSRC, the CAC and other compliance procedures.

 

  

No active trading market for our ordinary shares or the ADSs.

 

  

Volatile trading price of the ADSs.

 

  

Lack of research or report on the business or change in recommendations regarding the ADSs.

 

  

Sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of the ADSs.

Potential CAC and CSRC Approval Required for This Offering

The General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued theOpinions on Severe and Lawful Crackdown on Illegal Securities Activities, which was available to the public on July 6, 2021. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervisionon overseas listings by China-based companies. These opinions proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents facing China-based overseas-listed companiesand the demand for cybersecurity and data privacy protection. Moreover, on January 4, 2022, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and other ministries and commissions (including the CSRC), announced the adoption of the CybersecurityReview Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and provides that network platform operators possessing personal information of more than one million individual users must undergo a cybersecurity review by the CAC when they seek to havetheir securities listed on a foreign stock exchange. Furthermore, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC (“PIPL”), which became effective onNovember 1, 2021, requires such operators to obtain consent of the user prior to any cross-boarder transfer of personal information, as well as the

 

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satisfaction of at least one of the following conditions: (1) a security assessment organized by competent cybersecurity authorities has been passed; (2) certification of personal informationprotection from a specialized institution in accordance with the provisions issued by competent cybersecurity authorities has been passed; (3) a model standard contract about both parties’ rights and obligations formulated by competentcybersecurity authorities with the overseas recipient has been entered into; or (4) any other condition prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or by competent cybersecurity authorities has been satisfied. These policies and anyrelated implementation rules to be enacted may subject us to additional compliance requirement. As of the date of this prospectus, no official guidance or related implementation rules have been issued in relation to these recently issued opinions,and the interpretation and implementation of these opinions remain unclear at this stage. Moreover, the M&A Rules requires an overseas special purpose vehicle that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals formed for thepurpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies using shares of such special purpose vehicle or held by its shareholders as considerations to obtain the approval of the CSRC, prior tothe listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. However, the application of the M&A Rules remains unclear.

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC, together with other relevant government authorities in China issued the Provisions of the State Council on theAdministration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), and the Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) (together, “DraftOverseas Listing Regulations”). The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations require that a PRC domestic enterprise seeking to issue and list its shares overseas shall complete the filing procedures with the CSRC. Such overseas securities issuanceand listing include direct and indirect issuance and listing. Where an enterprise, whose principal business activities are conducted in China, seeks to issue and list its shares in the name of an overseas entity, such practice is deemed as anindirect overseas issuance and listing in the meaning of the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations. Therefore, our company will be required to complete the filing procedures with the CSRC, if the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations become effective intheir current form in the future.

Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries has not obtained the approval or clearance from either the CSRC,the CAC or any other regulators in China for this offering. We cannot assure you that we will remain fully compliant with all new regulatory requirements of these opinions or any future implementation rules on a timely basis, or at all. If we aresubject to additional requirements that we obtain the approval or clearance from either the CSRC, the CAC or any other regulators in China for this offering but fail to obtain such approval or clearance, we will not be able to pursue this offeringany further. If we attempt to pursue this offering without obtaining such approval or clearance from regulators in China, no matter it is rejected or granted but later rescinded, or if we inadvertently conclude that such approvals are not required,we may face severe and expansive sanctions imposed by regulators in China, including fines and penalties on our operations in China, limitations on our operating privileges in China, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds fromthis offering into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our subsidiaries in China, forced delisting of the ADSs, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business,financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs. The CSRC or other regulators in China may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt thisoffering before the settlement and delivery of the ADSs that we are offering. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to the settlement and delivery of the ADSs we are offering, you would bedoing so at the risk that the settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulators in China later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable toobtain a waiver of such approval requirements. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China—Recent regulatory developments in China may subject us to additional regulatory review or otherwise restrict or completelyhinder our ability to offer securities and raise capitals overseas, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business and cause the value of the ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless” and “—Risks Relating tothe ADSs and this Offering—

 

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The approval of or clearance by the CSRC, the CAC and other compliance procedures may be required in connection with this offering, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able toobtain such approval or clearance.”

Corporate History and Structure

We first started our business designing and developing high throughput computing solutions through Zhejiang Haowei Technology Co., Ltd., orZhejiang Haowei, incorporated in July 2019. On January 8, 2021, we incorporated Nano Labs Ltd, our holding company, as an exempted company with limited liability in the Cayman Islands. In 2021, we underwent a series of corporate reorganizationin anticipation of our initial public offering, including incorporation of our company as the listing vehicle, incorporation of our oversea holding companies and issuance of shares to shareholders of Zhejiang Haowei. In April 2021, we completed a one-for-10,000 shares subdivision, following which our authorized share capital of US$50,000 is divided into 500,000,000 ordinary shares of US$0.0001 each.

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this prospectus.

 

 

LOGO

 

 

(1)

The remaining 35% equity interest is owned by Hangzhou Lin’an Mantefu Technology Co., Ltd., anunaffiliated third party.

Holding Company Structure

Nano Labs Ltd is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries inChina and Hong Kong. As a result, Nano Labs Ltd’s ability to pay

 

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dividends depends upon dividends paid by our subsidiaries in China and Hong Kong. If our existing PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries or any newly formed ones incur debt on their own behalf in thefuture, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us.

In addition, our PRC subsidiaries arepermitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries did not have aggregate retained earnings as determined under PRC accountingstandards as of December 31, 2021. Pursuant to the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC Company Law, our PRC subsidiaries are required to make contribution of at least 10% of their after-tax profits calculated in accordancewith the PRC GAAP to the statutory common reserve. Contribution is not required if the reserve fund has reached 50% of the registered capital of our subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2021, our PRC subsidiaries had no restricted amount under thereserve fund.

None of our PRC subsidiaries has issued any dividends or distributions to respective holding companies or any investors asof the date of this prospectus. Our PRC subsidiaries generate and retain cash generated from operating activities and re-invest it in our business. Historically, Zhejiang Haowei has also received equity financing from its shareholders to fundbusiness operations of our PRC subsidiaries. In 2020 and 2021, we transferred cash proceeds of nil and US$21.1 million to our PRC subsidiaries for the settlement of intercompany transactions and as paid-in capital for our PRC subsidiaries. In thefuture, cash proceeds raised from overseas financing activities, including this offering, may be, and are intended to be, transferred by us through subsidiaries in Hong Kong to our PRC subsidiaries via capital contribution and shareholder loans, asthe case may be. Subsidiaries in China that receives such cash proceeds then will transfer funds to its subsidiaries to meet the capital needs of our business operations. For details about the applicable PRC rules that limit transfer of funds fromoverseas to our PRC subsidiaries, see “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies andgovernmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities.”

The structure of cash flows within our organization, and the applicable regulations, are as follows. After foreign investors’ funds enterNano Labs Ltd, our holding company, at the close of this offering, subject to the cash demand of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries, the funds can be transferred to our wholly owned Cayman subsidiaries, then to our wholly owned BVI subsidiaries,then to our Hong Kong subsidiaries, which will further distribute the funds to our PRC subsidiaries. If we intend to distribute dividends, PRC subsidiaries will transfer the dividends to our Hong Kong subsidiaries in accordance with the lawsand regulations of the PRC, and then our Hong Kong subsidiaries will transfer the dividends all the way up to Nano Labs Ltd, and the dividends will be distributed from Nano Labs Ltd to all shareholders respectively in proportion to the shares theyhold, regardless of whether the shareholders are U.S. investors or investors in other countries or regions. The cross-border transfer of funds within our corporate group under our direct holding structure must be legal and compliant with relevantlaws and regulations of China. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions andto our affiliated entities only through loans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factor—Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China—PRC regulation ofloans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to ourPRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities.” We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We have, from time to time, transferred cash between our PRC subsidiariesto fund their operations, and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between such subsidiaries. As of the date of this prospectus, no cash generated from our PRC subsidiaries has been used to fundoperations of any of our non-PRC subsidiaries. We may encounter difficulties in our ability to transfer cash between PRC subsidiaries and non-PRC subsidiaries largely due to various PRC laws and regulations

 

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imposed on foreign exchange. However, as long as we are compliant with the procedures for approvals from foreign exchange authorities and banks in China, the relevant laws and regulations inChina do not impose limitations on the amount of funds that we can transfer out of China. We currently do not have any cash management policy that dictate the transfer of cash between our subsidiaries. See “Regulation—PRC Laws andRegulations relating to Foreign Exchange” for details of such procedures. We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will beapproximately                 , of which approximately                 will betransferred to our PRC subsidiaries for research and development initiatives for more advanced ASIC chips, smart-NICs and vision computing chips, the establishment of our manufacturing plant for product assembling and supply chain optimization andworking capital and other general corporate activities within China. See “Use of Proceeds” for more details.

Implications of Being anEmerging Growth Company

As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenue for the last fiscal year, we qualify as an“emerging growth company” pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As such, we may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to publiccompanies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. Under the JOBS Act, an emerginggrowth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until the date that private companies are required to do so. We have elected to take advantage of such exemption, and as a result, while we are an emerginggrowth company, we will not be subject to new or revised accounting standards at the same time that they become applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annualgross revenues of at least US$1.07 billion; (2) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of completion of this offering; (3) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more thanUS$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act,which would occur if we have been a public company for at least 12 months and the market value of the ADSs that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our mostrecently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

Corporate Information

Our principalexecutive office is located at 30th Floor, Dikaiyinzuo, No. 29, East Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is (86) 0571-8665 6957. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands islocated at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.

Investors should submit any inquiries to the address andtelephone number of our principal executive offices. Our corporate website is www.nano.cn. The information contained on our websites is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc.located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168.

Conventions that Apply to this Prospectus

Unless we indicate otherwise and for the purpose of this prospectus only:

 

  

“ADRs” refers to the American depositary receipts, which, if issued, evidence the ADSs;

 

  

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of whichrepresents                    Class A ordinary share(s);

 

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“CAGR” refers to compound annual growth rate;

 

  

“China” and “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposesof this prospectus only, Taiwan, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macau Special Administrative Region;

 

  

“Class A ordinary shares” refers to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 pershare;

 

  

“Class B ordinary shares” refers to our Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 pershare;

 

  

“hash rate” refers to the processing power of the cryptocurrency network and represents the number ofcomputations that is processed by the network in a given time period;

 

  

“ICs” or “chips” refers to integrated circuits;

 

  

“nm” refers to nanometer (1 meter = 1,000,000,000 nanometers);

 

  

“RMB” and “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China;

 

  

“shares” and “ordinary shares” refers to prior to the completion of this offering, our pre-offering ordinary shares, and upon and after the completion of this offering, are to our Class A ordinary shares and our Class B ordinary shares;

 

  

“TH/s” and “GH/s” refers to the measuring unit of hash rate, which represent the processingpower of the cryptocurrency mining machine. 1 TH/s =1,000 GH/s;

 

  

“US$” and “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States of America; and

 

  

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our,” and “our group” refers toNano Labs Ltd, our Cayman Islands holding company, its predecessor entity and its subsidiaries, as the context requires.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchaseadditional ADSs.

We have made rounding adjustments to reach some of the figures included in this prospectus. Consequently, numericalfigures shown as totals in some tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.

Our reporting and functionalcurrency is Renminbi. This prospectus contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of Renminbi into U.S. dollars were made at RMB6.3757 toUS$1.00, representing the central parity rate on December 31, 2021 published by the People’s Bank of China. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus could have been or could be convertedinto U.S. dollars or Renminbi at any particular rate or at all. On June 9, 2022, the noon buying rate for Renminbi was RMB6.6811 to US$1.00.

 

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The Offering

 

Offering price per ADS

We currently estimate that the initial public offering price will be between US$         and US$         per ADS.

 

ADSs offered by us

                 ADSs (or                  ADSs if the underwriters exercise in fulltheir option to purchase additional ADSs).

 

ADSs issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

                     ADSs (or                     ADSs if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ADSs).

 

Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

                     Class A ordinary shares and                     Class B ordinary shares (or                     Class A ordinary shares and                     Class B ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ADSs).

 

ADSs

Every ADS represents                  Class A ordinary share(s), par value US$0.0001 per share.

 

 The depositary, or its nominee, will hold the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs and you will have the rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders andbeneficial owners of ADSs from time to time.

 

 We do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. If, however, we declare dividends on our ordinary shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on ourClass A ordinary shares after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.

 

 You may turn in your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for the underlying Class A ordinary shares, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement relating to the ADSs. The depositary will charge you fees for anysuch exchange.

 

 We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

 

 You should carefully read the section in this prospectus entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares” to better understand the terms of the ADSs. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is anexhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

Ordinary Shares

Immediately following the completion of this offering, our issued and outstanding share capital will consist of Class A ordinary shares and

 

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Class B ordinary shares. In respect of all matters subject to a shareholder vote, each Class A ordinary share is entitled to one vote, and each Class B ordinary share is entitledto 15 votes, voting together as one class. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares underany circumstances. Upon any sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person other than Mr. Jianping Kong and Mr. Qifeng Sun, the founders of our company or an affiliate of Mr. JianpingKong and Mr. Qifeng Sun, or upon a change of ultimate beneficial ownership of any Class B ordinary shares to any person who is not Mr. Jianping Kong and Mr. Qifeng Sun or an affiliate of Mr. Jianping Kong and Mr. Qifeng Sun, such Class Bordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the same number of Class A ordinary shares. For a description of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares, see “Description of Share Capital.”

 

Option to purchase additional ADSs

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an aggregateof                    additional ADSs at the initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Use of Proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$        million (or US$        million if the underwriters exercise in full their option topurchase additional ADSs) from this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of US$        per ADS, which is the mid-point of the estimated range of theinitial public offering price, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

 We anticipate using the net proceeds of this offering primarily for research and development, supply chain optimization, establishment of overseas headquarters and general corporate purposes.

 

 See “Use of Proceeds” for more information.

 

Lock-up

We, [our directors and executive officers, and existing shareholders] have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any ADSs, ordinary shares or similar securities or anysecurities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for our ordinary shares or ADSs, for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting.”

 

Listing

We intend to apply to have the ADSs listed on the Nasdaq Global Market. Our ordinary shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on anyover-the-counter trading system.

 

Proposed Nasdaq Global Market Symbol

“NA.”

 

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Depositary

Citibank, N.A..

 

Payment and settlement

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment on            , 2022, through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC.

 

Risk Factors

See “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of risks you should carefully consider before investing in the ADSs.

The total number of ordinary shares that will be issued and outstanding immediately after this offering is based upon:

 

  

103,790,000 ordinary shares issued and outstanding on an as-convertedbasis as of the date of this prospectus, assuming (1) the re-designation of 57,178,154 shares beneficially owned by Mr. Jianping Kong and Mr. Qifeng Sun, the founders of our company, into Class Bordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (2) the re-designation of allof our remaining issued and outstanding 46,611,846 ordinary shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately prior to the completion of thisoffering; and

 

  

                    Class A ordinary sharesin the form of ADSs that we will issue and sell in this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs.

 

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Summary Consolidated Financial Data

The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, the summary consolidatedbalance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and the summary consolidated statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements includedelsewhere in this prospectus. You should read the following information in conjunction with those financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of FinancialCondition and Results of Operations.” Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. Historical results for any prior period are not necessarilyindicative of results to be expected for any future period.

Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations Data

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net revenues:

    

Product sales revenue

   2,004,074   39,440,897   6,186,128 

Service revenue

   122,602   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   2,126,676   39,440,897   6,186,128 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cost of revenues

   1,270,544   43,530,708   6,827,597 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Gross profit (loss)

   856,132   (4,089,811  (641,469

Operating expenses:

    

Selling and marketing expenses

   108,567   5,119,072   802,904 

General and administrative expenses

   3,187,033   24,121,823   3,783,400 

Research and development expenses

   34,476,484   145,455,181   22,813,994 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

   37,772,084   174,696,076   27,400,298 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss from operations

   (36,915,952)   (178,785,887  (28,041,767
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Other expenses (income):

    

Finance expenses

   3,747   509,764   79,954 

Interest income

   (17,915  (3,495,208  (548,208

Other expenses (income)

   800,000   (855,959  (134,253
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total other expenses (income)

   785,832   (3,841,403  (602,507
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss before income tax provision

   (37,701,784)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260

Income tax provision

   2,293   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Net loss

   (37,704,077)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Summary Consolidated Balance Sheets Data

 

  As of December 31, 
  2020  2021 
  RMB  RMB  US$ 
          

ASSETS:

   

Current assets

   

Cash and cash equivalents

  35,333,172   233,853,654   36,678,899 

Short-term investments

  —     31,888,500   5,001,568 

Accounts receivable, net

  1,165,716   —     —   

Inventories, net

  7,238,293   213,870,251   33,544,591 

Prepayments

  7,985,676   372,355,129   58,402,235 

Due from related party

  4,390,000   —     —   

Other current assets

  2,895,895   41,460,490   6,502,892 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total current assets

  59,008,752   893,428,024   140,130,185 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Non-current assets

   

Property and equipment, net

  1,066,759   7,249,044   1,136,980 

Intangible asset, net

  99,301   —     —   

Long-term prepaid expense

  550,000   —     —   

Operating lease right-of-use assets

  768,678   9,155,665   1,436,025 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total non-current assets

  2,484,738   16,404,709   2,573,005 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL ASSETS

  61,493,490   909,832,733   142,703,190 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDER’ DEFICIT

   

Current liabilities:

   

Accounts payable

  899,687   2,837,638   445,071 

Accounts payable – related party

  4,716,981   —     —   

Advance from customers

  65,404,664   917,391,899   143,888,812 

Loan payable

  5,000,000   —     —   

Due to related parties

  31,355,000   —     —   

Operating lease liabilities, current

  462,313   5,224,757   819,480 

Other current liabilities

  1,898,524   6,917,757   1,085,018 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

  109,737,169   932,372,051   146,238,381 

Non-current liabilities:

   

Operating lease liabilities, non-current

  276,653   2,122,357   332,882 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

  110,013,822   934,494,408   146,571,263 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Shareholders’ deficit:

   

Ordinary shares (US$0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 79,249,000 and 103,790,000shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively)

  51,135   66,970   10,504 

Additional paid-in capital

  163,747   201,418,380   31,591,571 

Accumulated deficit

  (48,735,214)  (223,679,698  (35,083,159

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

  —     (2,467,327  (386,989
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ deficit

  (48,520,332  (24,661,675  (3,868,073
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

  61,493,490   909,832,733   142,703,190 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Summary Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows Data

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

   (3,027,899  71,732,868   11,250,980 

Net cash used in investing activities

   (1,646,776  (36,046,123  (5,653,673

Net cash provided by financing activities

   29,365,000   164,896,124   25,863,218 

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

   —     (2,062,387  (323,476

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

   24,690,325   198,520,482   31,137,049 

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year

   10,642,847   35,333,172   5,541,850 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year

   35,333,172   233,853,654   36,678,899 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus, includingthe risks and uncertainties described below, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The trading price of our ADSs coulddecline due to any of these risks and you may lose all or part of your investment. When determining whether to invest, you should also refer to the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and the relatednotes thereto. You should also carefully review the cautionary statements referred to under “Forward-looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in this prospectus.

Risks Relating to Our Business

We may fail toanticipate or adapt to technology innovations in a timely manner, so our IC design may fail to gain recognition from the customers and the IC design industry.

The IC design industry is experiencing rapid technological changes. Failure to anticipate technology innovations or adapt to such innovationsin a timely manner, or at all, may result in our products becoming obsolete at sudden and unpredictable intervals. As a result, our IC design may fail to gain recognition from the customers and the industry, which could materially and adverselyaffect our business, results of operations or financial condition. To maintain the relevancy of our products, we have actively invested in product planning and research and development. The process of developing and marketing new products isinherently complex and involves significant uncertainties. We cannot assure you that our efforts will bring customers and industry recognition. There are various risks, including the following:

 

  

our product planning efforts may fail to result in the development or commercialization of new technologies orideas;

 

  

our research and development efforts may fail to translate new product plans into commercially feasible products;

 

  

our new technologies or new products may not be well received by consumers;

 

  

we may not have adequate funding and resources necessary for continual investments in product planning andresearch and development;

 

  

our products may become obsolete due to rapid advancements in technology and changes in consumer preferences; and

 

  

our newly developed technologies may not be protected as proprietary intellectual property rights.

Any failure to anticipate the next-generation technology roadmap or changes in customer preferences or to timelydevelop new or enhanced products in response could result in decreased revenue and market share. In particular, we may experience difficulties with product design, product development, marketing or certification, which could result in excessiveresearch and development expenses and capital expenditure, delays or prevent our introduction of new or enhanced products. Furthermore, our research and development efforts may not yield the expected results or may prove to be futile due to the lackof market demand.

Our results of operations have been and are expected to continue to be significantly impacted by the volatility of thecryptocurrency market, and in particular, the sharp price decrease of cryptocurrencies.

Our products, including HTC and HPCsolutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions, are currently designed primarily for the mining of various cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin. The demand for, and pricing of, our productsare therefore affected by the expected economic returns of mining activities for these cryptocurrencies, which in turn are primarily driven by, among other factors, the prices. The cryptocurrency market is highly volatile, and the prices of Bitcoin,Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin have experienced significant fluctuations over their short existence and may continue to fluctuate significantly in the future. For example, the overall price of Bitcoin is on an upwardtrend, however, there have been some significant decreases in late 2018, early 2020 and early 2021, according to the F&S report.

 

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Historically, our revenues were primarily derived from the sales of HTC solutions primarilyused for Grin mining. We have completed several new products, such as the HTC solutions used for Ethereum mining, HPC solutions used for Bitcoin mining, and distributed computing and data storage solutions primarily forFilecoin mining. We expect our results of operations to be affected by the prices of cryptocurrencies, in particular, significantly and negatively impacted by the sharp price decrease of the prices of cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, Ethereum,Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin. Although we have begun the delivery of these new products in 2022, a diversified offering of mining solution types is unlikely to spread the risk of volatility as the prices ofmainstream cryptocurrencies are highly correlated. We cannot assure you that the cryptocurrency market will remain active enough to sustain the demand for our current and future mining machines or that the prices for any of these cryptocurrencieswill not decline significantly in the future. Furthermore, fluctuations in the prices of cryptocurrencies, in particular, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin, can have an immediate impact on the trading price of the companiesoperating in the cryptocurrency industry, including the ADSs, even before our financial performance is affected, if at all.

In additionto the market volatility, various other factors, mostly beyond our control, could impact the prices of cryptocurrencies. For example, the usage of Bitcoins in the retail and commercial marketplace is relatively low in comparison with the usage forspeculation, which contributes to Bitcoin price volatility.

If the price of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic,Grin or Filecoin drops and fails to recover, the expected economic return of such mining activities will diminish, which could result in a decrease in demand for our current and future HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storagesolutions. As a result, we may need to reduce the price of our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions. At the same time, if transaction fees for these cryptocurrencies increase to such an extent as to discourageusers from using them as a medium of exchange, it may decrease the transaction volume of the relevant network and may affect the demand for our current and future HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions. Inaddition, any shortage of power supply due to government control measures or other reasons, and any increase in energy costs, would raise the costs of mining activities. This in turn could affect the expected economic return to our customers fortheir mining activities and the demand for and pricing of our current and future HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions. Furthermore, fluctuations in the prices of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin orFilecoin may affect the value of our inventory as well as the provision we make to the inventory as we manage our inventory based on, among others, the sales forecast of current and future HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and datastorage solutions. If we increase our procurement volume and stock up finished goods for the launch of new products or we expect a surge of demand of certain HTC and HPC solutions, a significant drop in the prices of Bitcoin, Ethereum, EthereumClassic, Grin or Filecoin can lead to a lower expected sales price and excessive inventory, which in turn will lead to impairment losses with respect to such inventory. If the prices of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin or Filecoin dropsignificantly in the future, we may need to record write-down for potentially obsolete, slow-moving inventory. For example, we recorded an inventory write-down of RMB26.8 million (US$4.2 million) in the cost of revenues in 2021 due to the downwardadjustment on the book value of a portion of our inventory in response to the decrease in the market price of cryptocurrency and expected economic return on cryptocurrency mining. To the extent that we are able to sell such inventory above itscarrying value, our gross profit may also be inflated by such write down.

The price drop of cryptocurrencies may also adversely impactthe ability of our customers who made down payments for our current or future HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions to make final payments. We usually require full payment to be paid before the delivery of ourproducts. If the prices of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin or Filecoin drop significantly in the future, we may need to offer to certain of our customers price concession in the case where they encounter the difficulties for making thefinal payments, even if we generally do not offer a price concession to customers. If we provide any price concession to our customers in the future, our revenues and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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We have derived and may continue to derive substantially all of our revenues from our HTC solutions.We also expect to generate significant revenues from HPC solutions in the future. If the market for HTC and HPC solutions ceases to exist or diminishes significantly, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materiallyand adversely affected.

Historically, our revenues were primarily derived from the sales of HTC solutions primarily used for Grinmining. We have completed several new products, such as the HTC solutions used for Ethereum mining, HPC solutions used for Bitcoin mining and distributed computing and data storage solutions primarily for Filecoin mining. In 2020 and 2021, sales ofour HTC solutions accounted for 94.2% and 100% of our total revenues, respectively, and we had received RMB917.4 million (US$143.9 million) from the pre-sale of our products as of December 31, 2021. We expect to generate, in the foreseeable future,a significant portion of our revenues from sales of our HTC and HPC solutions.

If the market for any of the above-mentionedmining solutions ceases to exist or diminishes significantly, we would experience a significant loss of sales, cancelation of orders, or loss of customers for our current and future mining machines.

Adverse factors that may affect the market for our current and future mining machines include:

 

  

Another cryptocurrency, especially one that is not created using the same mining processes as Bitcoin, Ethereum,Ethereum Classic, Grin or Filecoin, emerges as a new mainstream cryptocurrency and squeezes Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin or Filecoin out of the market, thereby causing these cryptocurrencies to lose value or become worthless, whichcould adversely affect the sustainability of our business.

 

  

Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin or Filecoin fails to gain wide market acceptance and fails to become agenerally accepted medium of exchange in the global economy due to certain inherent limitations to cryptocurrencies.

 

  

Over time, the reward for blockchain mining will decline in terms of the amount of cryptocurrency awarded, whichmay reduce the incentive to mine these cryptocurrencies. Therefore, our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions may become less productive as the available rewards for cryptocurrency mining decrease.

If we cannot maintain the scale and profitability of our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and datastorage solutions and, at the same time, successfully expand our business in other application markets, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects will suffer. Furthermore, excess inventory, inventory markdowns, brandimage deterioration and margin squeeze caused by declining economic returns for miners or pricing competition for our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions could all have a material and adverse effect on ourbusiness, results of operations and financial condition. Moreover, as we only had limited experience in the commercialization of HTC and HPC solutions, we cannot assure you that our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and storagesolutions to be launched will be well received among the miners of these cryptocurrencies, nor can we assure you that the demand for these products will be strong enough for us to recover the research and development expenses incurred in relation tothe development of these products. If our efforts to market these new products fail, or the demand for these products turns out to be weaker than we expected, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially andadversely affected.

 

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We face risks associated with the expansion of our business operations overseas and if we are unableto effectively manage such risks, our business growth and profitability may be negatively affected.

We intend to grow our businessin part by expanding our sales network and operations internationally beyond China. Our expansion plans include possibly establishing offices for sales, research and development and other operations in Singapore and the United States.However, there are risks associated with such global expansion plans, including:

 

  

high costs of investment to establish a presence in a new market and manage international operations;

 

  

competition in unfamiliar markets;

 

  

foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

 

  

regulatory differences and difficulties in ensuring compliance with multi-national legal requirements andmulti-national operations;

 

  

changes in economic, legal, political or other local conditions in new markets;

 

  

our limited customer base and limited sales and relationships with international customers;

 

  

competitors in the overseas markets may be more dominant and have stronger ties with customers and greaterfinancial and other resources;

 

  

challenges in managing our international sales channels effectively;

 

  

difficulties in and costs of exporting products overseas while complying with the different commercial, legal andregulatory requirements of the overseas markets in which we offer our products;

 

  

difficulty in ensuring that our customers comply with the sanctions imposed by the Office of Foreign AssetsControl in the United States and regulators in other countries and regions, on various foreign states, organizations and individuals;

 

  

inability to obtain, maintain or enforce intellectual property rights;

 

  

inability to effectively enforce contractual or legal rights or intellectual property rights in certainjurisdictions where we operate; and

 

  

governmental policies favoring domestic companies in certain foreign markets or trade barriers including exportrequirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and charges. In particular, a worldwide trend in favor of nationalism and protectionist trade policy and the ongoing trade dispute between the United States and China as well as other potentialinternational trade disputes could cause turbulence in international markets. These government policies or trade barriers could increase the prices of our products and make us less competitive in such countries.

If we are unable to effectively manage such risks, we may encounter difficulties in our overseas expansion plans and our business, reputation,results of operations and financial condition may be impaired.

Our business growth is dependent on the development of blockchain technology andapplications, particularly in the field of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin.

We have historically derivedour revenues primarily from sales of our HTC solutions in relation to Grin mining. The development of blockchain technology is still in a relatively early stage, and we cannot assure you that blockchain applications, including those in the fields ofcryptocurrencies and other areas such as artificial intelligence, will gain wide market acceptance. Any blockchain application may become redundant or obsolete with the introduction of new competing technologies or products. If market acceptance orconfidence in blockchain technology is lost or reduced for any reason, such as due to cybersecurity issues, the demand for our existing or future blockchain products may decline.

 

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Our blockchain mining solution business depends significantly on the development ofcryptocurrency applications, in particular, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin and Filecoin applications. The cryptocurrency market is rapidly and continuously evolving. Any actual or perceived adverse development in Bitcoin or othercryptocurrencies can significantly affect market demand for mining activities and our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions. In addition, any event or rumor that generates negative publicity for thecryptocurrency market could hinder the development and reduce market acceptance of cryptocurrency applications. Under such circumstances, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

The average selling prices of our products may decrease from time to time due to technological advancement, and we may not be able to pass onto oursuppliers such decreases, which may in turn adversely affect our profitability.

The IC design industry is characterized by rapidlaunches of new products, continuous technological advancements, and changing market trends and customer preferences, all of which translate to a shorter life cycle and a gradual decrease in the average selling prices of products over time. Becausewe compete in the environment of rapidly-evolving technology advancement and market trends and developments of the IC design industry, we may need to lower the price of our products to gain stronger market competitiveness and we cannot assure youthat we will be able to pass on any decrease in average selling prices of our products to our suppliers. If the average selling prices of our products unusually or significantly decrease and such decreases cannot be offset by a correspondingdecrease in the prices of the principal components of our products, our gross profit margins may be materially and adversely affected, which in turn, may adversely affect our profitability.

If Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin loses its popularity or is replaced by other cryptocurrencies as the mainstream cryptocurrencies, we may not be able to winthe market for our future mining machines and our results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

Historically,we derived our revenue primarily from HTC solutions designed for Grin mining. As of the date of this prospectus, we have pre-sold and recognized revenue from sales of our Bitcoin and Ethereum mining solutions to our customers. We face the risk thatother cryptocurrencies could replace Bitcoin and Ethereum as the mainstream cryptocurrencies, which may in turn negatively impact the value of Bitcoin and Ethereum and diminish interest in mining Bitcoin and Ethereum. We also face the risk of Grinlosing its popularity. Acceptance of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin may decline due to various reasons such as the following:

 

  

potential changes in algorithms or source code may negatively impact user acceptance;

 

  

patches, upgrades, attacks or hacking of relevant infrastructure may undermine user interest or confidence;

 

  

usage of Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin for illicit or illegal activities by bad actors may erode public perception ofBitcoin or Ethereum; or

 

  

hacking, fraud or other problems with cryptocurrency exchanges, wallets or other related infrastructure maynegatively impact user confidence.

If fewer people accept Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin or fewer merchants accept Bitcoin,Ethereum or Grin as a payment method and alternative assets or Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin mining being restricted or prohibited due to the changes of the relevant laws and regulations, Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin may decline in value. For example,although Bitcoin is currently the largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, a substantial amount of Bitcoin-related transactions may be speculation-related and a technological breakthrough in the form of a better cryptocurrency is acontinuous threat. Other cryptocurrencies may be designed with algorithms that are not compatible with the kind of computing done by ASIC chip mining machines. If such a cryptocurrency were to become dominant, our existing technological know-how may not be applicable in creating hardware for participants in that cryptocurrency network, and we may face greater competition from new players. In addition, since the value of and support for Bitcoin,Ethereum or Grin depend entirely on the community using it, any

 

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disagreement between the users may result in the splitting of the network to support other cryptocurrencies and the users may sell all their Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin and switch to othercryptocurrencies. As a result, our future blockchain mining solutions and our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

OurIC products mainly depend on supplies from third-party foundries, and any failure to obtain sufficient foundry capacity from such foundries would significantly delay the shipment of our products.

As a fabless IC design company, we do not own any IC fabrication facilities. We currently work with two leading foundries as our main ICfabrication partners and place purchase orders according to our business needs. It is important for us to have a reliable relationship with third-party foundries as well as other future foundry service providers to ensure adequate product supply torespond to customer demand.

We cannot guarantee that our foundry service providers will be able to meet our manufacturing requirements.The ability of our foundry service providers to provide us with foundry services is limited by their technology migration, available capacity and existing obligations. If any of our foundry service providers fails to succeed in its technologymigration, it will not be able to deliver to us qualified ICs, which will significantly affect our technological advancement and shipment of our products and solutions. This could in turn result in lost sales and have a material adverse effect onour relationships with our customers and on our business and financial condition. In addition, we do not have a guaranteed level of production capacity from our foundry service providers. We do not have long-term contracts with them, and we sourceour supplies on a purchase order basis and prepay the purchase amount. As a result, we depend on our foundry service providers to allocate to us a portion of its manufacturing capacity sufficient to meet our needs, produce products of acceptablequality and at acceptable final test yields and deliver those products to us on a timely basis and at acceptable prices. If any of our foundry service providers raises its prices or is unable to meet our required capacity for any reason, such asshortages or delays in the shipment of semiconductor equipment or raw materials required to manufacture our ICs, or if our business relationships with any of our foundry service providers deteriorate, we may not be able to obtain the requiredcapacity and would have to seek alternative foundries, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Moreover, it is possible that other customers of any of our foundry service providers that are larger and/or betterfinanced than we are, or that have long-term contracts with it, may receive preferential treatment in terms of capacity allocation or pricing. In addition, if we do not accurately forecast our capacity needs, any of our foundry service providers maynot have available capacity to meet our immediate needs or we may be required to pay higher costs to fulfill those needs, either of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

In particular, the production of our IC products may require advanced IC fabrication technologies, and some third-party foundries we partnerwith might not have sufficient production capacity for such technologies, if at all, to meet our requirements. This may expose us to risks associated with engaging new foundries. For example, using foundries with which we have not establishedrelationships could expose us to potentially unfavorable pricing, unsatisfactory quality or insufficient capacity allocation.

Other risksassociated with our dependence on third-party foundries include limited control over delivery schedules and quality assurance, lack of capacity in periods of excess demand, unauthorized use of our intellectual property and limited ability to manageinventory and parts. In particular, although we have entered into confidentiality agreements with our third-party foundries for the protection of our intellectual property, they may not protect our intellectual property with the same degree of careas we use to protect our intellectual property. If we fail to properly manage any of these risks, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Moreover, if any of our foundry service providers suffers any damage to its facilities, suspends manufacturing operations, loses benefitsunder material agreements, experiences power outages or computer virus attacks, lacks sufficient capacity to manufacture our products, encounters financial difficulties, is unable to secure necessary raw materials from its suppliers or suffers anyother disruption or reduction in efficiency, we may encounter supply delays or disruptions.

 

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We rely on a limited number of third parties for IC packaging and testing services.

Fabrication of ICs requires specialized services to process the silicon wafers into ICs by packaging them and to test their proper functioning.We primarily collaborate with a lending packaging and testing service provider for such services, which may expose us to a number of risks, including difficulties in finding alternate suppliers, capacity shortages or delays, lack of control oroversight in timing, quality or costs, and misuse of our intellectual property. If any such problems arise with our packaging and testing partners, we may experience delays in our production and delivery timeline, inadequate quality control of ourproducts or excessive costs and expenses. As a result, our financial condition, results of operations, reputation and business may be adversely affected.

Shortages in, or rises in the prices of, the components of our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and storage solutions may adverselyaffect our business.

Given the long production period to manufacture, assemble, and deliver certain components and products,problems could arise in planning production and managing inventory levels that could seriously interrupt our operations, including the possibility of defective parts, an increase in component costs, delays in delivery schedules, and shortages ofcomponents. In addition to ICs, the components we use for our mining machines include printed circuit boards, other electronic components, fans, and aluminum casings. The production of our mining machines also requires certain ancillary equipmentand components such as controllers, power adaptors, and connectors. The production of our current products depends on obtaining adequate supplies of these components on a timely basis and at competitive prices. We do not typically maintain largeinventory of the components, and rather purchase them on an “as-needed” basis from various third-party component manufacturers that satisfy our quality standards and meet our production requirements.We may have to turn to less reputable suppliers if we cannot source adequate components from our regular suppliers. Under such circumstances, the quality of the components may suffer and could cause performance issues in our HTC and HPC solutionsand distributed computing and storage solutions.

Shortages of components could result in reduced production or delays in production, aswell as an increase in production costs, which may negatively affect our ability to fulfill orders or make timely shipments to our customers, as well as our customer relationships and profitability. Component shortages may also increase our costs ofproducts sold because we may be required to pay higher prices for components in short supply, or redesign or reconfigure products to accommodate for the substitute components, without being able to pass such cost to our customers. As a result, ourbusiness, results of operations and reputation could be materially and adversely affected by any product defects.

Failure at tape-out or failure to achieve the expected final test yields for our ICs could negatively impact our results of operations.

The tape-out process is a critical milestone in our business. Atape-out means all the stages in the design and verification process of our ICs have been completed, and the chip design is sent for manufacturing. The tape-out processrequires considerable investment in time and resources and close cooperation with the wafer foundry, and repeated failures can significantly increase our costs, lengthen our product development period, and delay our product launch. If the tape-out or testing of a new chip design fails, either as a result of design flaws by our research and development team or problems with production or the testing process by the wafer foundry, we may incurconsiderable costs and expenses to fix or restart the design process. Such obstacles may decrease our profitability or delay the launch of new products.

Once tape-out is achieved, the IC design is sent for manufacturing, and the final test yield is ameasurement of the production success rate. The final test yield is a function of both product design, which is developed by us, and process technology, which typically belongs to a third-party foundry. Low final test yields can result from aproduct design deficiency or a process technology failure or a combination of both. As such, we may not be able to identify problems causing low final test yields until our product designs go to the manufacturing stage, which may substantiallyincrease our per unit costs and delay the launch of new products.

 

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For example, if any of our foundry service providers experiences manufacturinginefficiencies or encounters disruptions, errors or difficulties during production, we may fail to achieve acceptable final test yields or experience product delivery delays. We cannot guarantee that our foundry service providers will be able todevelop, obtain or successfully implement process technologies needed to manufacture future generations of our IC products on a timely basis. Moreover, during the periods in which foundries are implementing new process technologies, theirmanufacturing facilities may not be fully productive. A substantial delay in the technology transitions to smaller geometry process technologies could have a material and adverse effect on us, particularly if our competitors transition to suchtechnologies before us. In addition, resolution of yield problems requires cooperation among us, foundry partners, and packaging and testing partners. We cannot assure you that the cooperation will be successful and that any yield problem can befixed.

Our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and storage solutions use open source software as their basic controller system, whichmay subject us to certain risks.

We use open source software in our HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and storagesolutions. For example, our mining machine controller open source software needs to be installed on open source, which serves as the basic controller system for our HTC and HPC solutions, and we expect to continue to use open source software in thefuture. We may face claims from others claiming ownership of, or seeking to enforce the terms of, an open source license, including by demanding the release of the open source software, derivative works or our proprietary source code that wasdeveloped using such software. These claims could also result in litigation, requiring us to purchase a costly license or to devote additional research and development resources to change our technologies, either of which would have a negativeeffect on our business and results of operations. In addition, if the license terms for the open source software we utilize change, we may be forced to re-engineer or discontinue our solutions or incuradditional costs.

If we fail to maintain an effective quality control system, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

We place great emphasis on product quality and adhere to stringent quality control measures and have obtained product compliancecertifications, such as ICES certificate, CE EMC certificate and FCC SDOC certificate, after independent third party inspection for our products. To meet our customers’ requirements and expectations for the quality and safety of our products,we have selected leading third party assembling partners with quality control certifications such as ISO9001 and adopted a stringent quality control system to ensure that every step of the production process is strictly monitored and managed.Failure to maintain an effective quality control system or to obtain or renew our quality standards certifications may result in a decrease in demand for our products or cancelation or loss of purchase orders from our customers. Moreover, ourreputation could be impaired. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

The quality of our products and services relies on third-party suppliers and service providers we engage. If we fail to provide satisfactory services ormaintain their service levels, it could materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party suppliers and service providers to provide quality products and services to customers, and our brand and reputation maybe harmed by actions taken by them that are beyond our control. Despite the measures we have taken to ensure the quality of products and services provided by third-party suppliers and service providers, to the extent that there are manufacturingdefects beyond our control, or our third-party suppliers and service providers are unable to maintain the efficiency of their production facilities, supply sufficient components or raw materials in a timely manner, or provide satisfactory servicesto our

customers, we may suffer reputational damage, and our brand image, business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially andadversely affected.

 

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We rely on third-party logistics service providers to deliver our products. Disruption in logisticsmay prevent us from meeting customer demand and our business, results of operations and financial condition may suffer as a result.

We engage third-party logistics service providers to deliver the ICs from our production partners to our assembly partners and our productsfrom our assembly partners to our customers. Disputes with or termination of our contractual relationships with one or more of our logistics service providers could result in delayed delivery of products or increased costs. We cannot assure you thatwe can continue or extend relationships with our current logistics service providers on terms acceptable to us, or that we will be able to establish relationships with new logistics service providers to ensure accurate, timely and cost-efficientdelivery services. If we are unable to maintain or develop good relationships with our preferred logistics service providers, it may inhibit our ability to offer products in sufficient quantities, on a timely basis, or at prices acceptable to ourconsumers. If there is any breakdown in our relationships with our preferred logistics service providers, we cannot assure you that no interruptions in our product delivery would occur or that they would not materially and adversely affect ourbusiness, results of operations and financial condition.

As we do not have any direct control over these logistics service providers, wecannot guarantee their quality of service. In addition, services provided by these logistics service providers could be interrupted by unforeseen events beyond our control, such as poor handling provided by these logistics service providers, naturaldisasters, pandemics, adverse weather conditions, riots and labor strikes. If there is any delay in delivery, damage to products or any other issue, we may lose customers and sales and our brand image may be tarnished.

Product defects resulting in a large-scale product recall or product liability claims against us could materially and adversely affect our business,results of operations and reputation.

Our products are manufactured in accordance with internationally accepted quality standardsand specifications provided by our customers. However, we cannot assure you that all our products are free of defects. Consequently, any product defects identified by our customers or end users might erode our reputation and negatively affect ourcustomer relationships and future business. Product defects may also result in product returns and large-scale product recalls or product liability claims against us for substantial damages. Such claims, irrespective of the outcomes or the merits,would likely be time-consuming and costly to defend and could divert significant resources and management attention. Furthermore, even if we are able to defend any such claim successfully, we cannot assure you that our customers will not loseconfidence in our products or that our future relationships with our customers will not be damaged. As a result, our business, results of operations, reputation and brand image could be materially and adversely affected by any product defects.

If we are unable to maintain or enhance our brand recognition, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially andadversely affected.

Maintaining and enhancing the recognition, image and acceptance of our brand are important to our ability todifferentiate our products from and to compete effectively with our peers. Our brand image, however, could be jeopardized if we fail to maintain high product quality, pioneer and keep pace with evolving technology trends, or timely fulfill theorders for our products. If we fail to promote our brand or to maintain or enhance our brand recognition and awareness among our customers, or if we are subject to events or negative allegations affecting our brand image or the publicly perceivedposition of our brand, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Our Operations

We have incurred net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities in the past, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

We recorded net loss of RMB37.7 million and RMB174.9 million (US$27.4 million) in 2020 and 2021, respectively. We alsorecorded negative cash flows from operating activities of RMB3.0 million in 2020,

 

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although we generated cash flows from operating activities of RMB71.7 million (US$11.3 million) in 2021. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate net profit or continue to generatepositive cash flow from operating activities in the future. Our ability to achieve profitability will depend in large part on our ability to control expenses and manage our growth effectively, achieve a more stable performance given the significantfluctuation and volatility of the prices of cryptocurrencies and blockchain mining business, and maintain our competitive advantage in the relevant markets. We expect to continue to make investments in the development and expansion of our business,which will place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources. Continuous expansion may increase the complexity of our business, and we may encounter various difficulties. We may fail to develop and improve ouroperational, financial and management controls, enhance our financial reporting systems and procedures, recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel, or maintain customer satisfaction to effectively support and manage our growth. If we investsubstantial time and resources to expand our operations but fail to manage the growth of our business and capitalize on our growth opportunities effectively, we may not be able to achieve profitability, and our business, results of operations andfinancial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

Our limited operating history and our volatile historical results of operationscould make it difficult for us to forecast our business and assess the seasonality and volatility in our business.

We have arelatively short operating history since 2019 and did not generate any revenue until 2020. Our total revenue was RMB2.1 million and RMB39.4 million (US$6.2 million) in 2020 and 2021, respectively. As the fabless IC design market is relativelynascent and still rapidly evolving, and due to our limited operating history and historical data, as well as the limited visibility into future demand trends for our products, we may not be able to accurately forecast our future total revenue andbudget our operating expenses accordingly. As most of our expenses are fixed in the short-term or incurred in advance of anticipated total revenue, we may not be able to adjust our expenses in a timely manner in order to offset any shortfall inrevenue.

Our business may be subject to the varying order patterns of the fabless IC design market. We may experience fluctuations inorders in the future. Our volatile historical results of operations could make it difficult to assess the impact of seasonal factors on our business. If we or any of our third-party manufacturing service providers are unable to increase productionof new or existing products to meet any increases in demand due to seasonality or other factors, our total revenue would be adversely affected and our reputation with our customers may be damaged.

The ongoing global coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak had caused significant disruptions in our business, which weexpect will materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has spread throughout the world. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a global pandemic. Many businesses and social activities in China and other countries and regionshave been severely disrupted in the first quarter of 2020, including those of our suppliers, customers and employees. This global outbreak has also caused market panics, which materially and negatively affected the global financial markets, such asthe plunge of global stocks on major stock exchanges in March 2020. Such disruption and the potential slowdown of the world’s economy in 2020 and beyond could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.We and our customers experienced and may continue to experience significant business disruptions and suspension of operations due to quarantine measures to contain the spread of the pandemic, which may cause shortage in the supply of raw materials,reduce our production capacity, increase the likelihood of default from our customers and delay our product delivery. Our business operation was also disrupted, and may continue to be disrupted, if any of our employees are suspected of havingcontracted any contagious disease or condition, since it could require our employees to be quarantined or our offices and production to be closed down and disinfected. Moreover, regional outbreaks of COVID-19may continue to emerge. All of these had, and may continue to have, a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition in the near term. We are closely monitoring the development of theCOVID-19 pandemic and continuously evaluating any further potential impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, which we believe will depend on the duration and degree of thepandemic. If the outbreak persists or escalates, we may be subject to further negative impact on our business operations and financial condition.

 

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Our business requires significant financial resources, but we may not be able to obtain it in a timelymanner and on favorable terms or at all.

We recorded net cash outflow from operating activities of RMB3.0 million in 2020 andincurred net loss of RMB37.7 million and RMB174.9 million (US$27.4 million) for 2020 and 2021, respectively. We have in the past financed our working capital needs primarily with our capital contributions by and loans from shareholders.

We may require additional cash resources due to the future growth, development and expansion of our business. Our future capital requirementsmay be substantial as we seek to expand our operations, diversify our product offering, and pursue acquisitions and equity investments. In addition, we incurred accrued payables to related parties of RMB4.7 million as of December 31, 2020, andaccounts payable of RMB0.9 million and RMB2.8 million (US$0.4 million) as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. If our cash resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to issue additional equity or debtsecurities or obtain new or expanded credit facilities or enter into additional factoring arrangements.

Our ability to obtain externalfinancing in the future is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and the liquidity of international capital and lending markets. In addition, our loan agreements maycontain financial covenants that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness or to distribute dividends. Any indebtedness that we may incur in the future may also contain operating and financial covenants that could further restrict ouroperations. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in a timely manner or in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, or at all. A large amount of bank borrowings and other debt may result in a significant increase in interest expensewhile at the same time exposing us to increased interest rate risks. Equity financings could result in dilution to our shareholders, and the securities issued in future financings may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to thoseof our ordinary shares. Any failure to raise needed funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, could severely restrict our liquidity as well as have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may not be able to price our products at our desired margins as a result of any decrease in our bargaining power or changes in market conditions.

We set prices for our products based on various internal and external factors, such as the cost of production, the technologicalcontents of our products, market conditions, and competition we face. Our ability to set favorable prices at our desired margins and accurately estimate costs, among other factors, has a significant impact on our profitability. We cannot assure youthat we will be able to maintain our pricing or bargaining power or that our gross profit margin will not be driven down by market conditions or other factors. If we see higher pricing pressure due to intensified competition from othermanufacturers, decreases in prices to our customers in the end market or any other reasons, or if we otherwise lose bargaining power due to weaker demand for our products, we may need to reduce the prices and lower the margins of our products.Moreover, we may not be able to accurately estimate our costs or pass on all or part of any increase in our costs of production, and in particular, the costs of raw materials, components and parts, to our customers. As a result, our results ofoperations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

We may be exposed to credit risks and concentration of credit risksin relation to defaults from counterparties.

Although we require our customers to make full payment for our HTC and HPC solutionsbefore delivery of products, and we generally do not offer credit sales to customers, we cannot assure you that we will not offer credit sales to our customers in the future due to various internal or external factors, such as thedecrease in our bargaining power and changes in industry conditions. If this happens, a drop in the prices of Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin may result in lower economic returns for mining activities of our customers and adversely affect their businessesand financial condition, which may further affect their credit profiles and their ability to settle accounts receivables. In addition, if we start to offer credit sales, we may also face concentration of credit risks

 

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associated with our business. Our exposure to credit risk may be influenced mainly by the individual characteristics of each customer as well as the industry or country in which the customersoperate, and may be concentrated on few number of customers. Although we will monitor our exposure to credit risk on an ongoing basis and make periodic judgment on impairment of overdue receivables based on the likelihood of collectability in thecase where we start offer credit sales to our customers, we cannot assure you that all of our counterparties are creditworthy and reputable and will not default on payments in the future. If we encounter significant delays or defaults in payment byour customers or are otherwise unable to recover our accounts receivables, our cash flow, liquidity and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unable to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our business, results of operations and financial condition may bematerially and adversely affected.

We plan to expand the application scenarios, including but not limited to data centers andvision computing, by enhancing the quality and variety of our chip products and solution offerings to better serve existing customers and attract new customers. We may fail to successfully execute our expansion plan due to our limitedresources and other reasons beyond our control. For example, the gain we obtain from the sales of our existing HTC and HPC solutions may not cover our expenses of development due to a prolonged depression of cryptocurrency prices. In addition, wemay face relevant restrictions from existing and future regulations in connection with our expansion into these new business areas. See “—Risks Relating to Our Industry—It may be or become illegal to acquire, own, hold, sell or usecryptocurrencies, participate in the blockchain, transfer or utilize similar bitcoin assets in China or overseas markets where we operate due to adverse changes in the regulatory and policy environment in these jurisdictions.” While we havebeen closely monitoring the development of the relevant regulations and have been in communication with regulatory authorities, these new business initiatives may not be viable due to regulatory concerns. Should we fail to successfully manage ourgrowth or implement our strategies, the resources we allocate to the new business lines will be wasted, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

High customer concentration exposes us to all of the risks faced by our major customers and may subject us to significant fluctuations or declines inrevenues.

Our customers include both enterprises and individuals. A limited number of our major customers, however, havecontributed a significant portion of our revenues in the past. In 2020 and 2021, respectively, we generated approximately 47.0% and 59.0% of our total revenues from our largest customer and approximately 94.0% and 85.0% from the top five largestcustomers. Although we continually seek to diversify our customer base, we cannot assure you that the proportion of the revenue contribution from these customers to our total revenues will decrease in the near future. Dependence on alimited number of major customers will expose us to the risks of substantial losses and extend the turnover days if any of them reduces or even ceases business collaborations with us. Specifically, any one of the following events, among others, maycause material fluctuations or declines in our revenues and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects:

 

  

an overall decline in the business of one or more of our significant customers;

 

  

the decision by one or more of our significant customers to switch to our competitors;

 

  

the reduction in the prices of our products agreed by one or more of our significant customers;

 

  

the failure or inability of any of our significant customers to make timely payment for our products; or

 

  

regulatory developments that may negatively affect the business of one or more of our significant customers orcryptocurrency mining activities in general.

If we fail to maintain relationships with these major customers, and if weare unable to find replacement customers on commercially desirable terms or in a timely manner or at all, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Our prepayments to suppliers may subject us to counterparty risk associated with such suppliers andnegatively affect our liquidity.

We are required to prepay some of our suppliers before the service is provided to secure thesupplier’s production capacity. The amount of our prepayments may significantly increase as we continue to pursue technological advancement. We are subject to counterparty risk exposure to our suppliers. Any failure by our suppliers to performtheir contract obligations on a timely manner and/or with our requested quality may cause us fail to fulfill customers’ orders accordingly. In such event, we may not be able to regain the prepayment in a timely manner or in full, even thoughour suppliers are obligated to return such prepayments under specified circumstances as previously agreed upon. Furthermore, if the cash outflows for the prepayments significantly exceed the cash inflows during any period, our future liquidityposition will be adversely affected.

If we fail to maintain appropriate inventory levels in line with the approximate level of demand for ourproducts, we could lose sales or face excessive inventory risks and holding costs.

On the one hand, to operate our businesssuccessfully and meet our customers’ demands and expectations, although we usually only offer advance sale in most of circumstances, we must still maintain a certain level of finished goods inventory to ensure immediate delivery when required.We are also required to maintain an appropriate level of raw materials for our production. However, forecasts are inherently uncertain. If our forecasted demand is lower than what eventually transpires, we may not be able to maintain an adequateinventory level of our finished goods or produce our products in a timely manner, and we may lose sales and market share to our competitors. On the other hand, we may also be exposed to increased inventory risks due to accumulated excess inventoryof our products or raw materials, parts and components for our products. Excess inventory levels may lead to increases in inventory holding costs, risks of inventory obsolescence and provisions for write-downs, which will materially and adverselyaffect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In order to maintain an appropriate inventory level of finished goodsand raw materials to meet market demand, we adjust our procurement amount and production schedule from time to time based on customers’ orders and anticipated demand. We also carry out an inventory review and an aging analysis on a regularbasis. We may make provision for the obsolete and slow-moving inventory of raw materials and finished goods that are no longer suitable for use in production or sale depending on future changes of our inventory strategy. However, we cannot guaranteethat these measures will always be effective and that we will be able to maintain an appropriate inventory level. We may also be exposed to the risk of holding excessive inventory, including older generation IC products that are less marketablewhich may increase our inventory holding costs and subject us to the risk of inventory obsolescence or write-offs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. If we cannot maintain anappropriate inventory level, we may lose sales and market share to our competitors.

Our export of products to foreign countries such as the UnitedStates, may be subject to high tariff rates resulting from protectionism trade policies, and as a result, our future sales volumes, profitability and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

Historically, only a small portion of our products were exported to the United States. However, as our sales continue to ramp up, export of ourproducts to the United States may increase. The United States and China had previously been involved in controversy over trade barriers in China that have threatened a trade war between these two countries, and had implemented or proposed toimplement tariffs on certain imported products. Though we are not aware of any trade policies announced by the United States that may directly impact the export of our IC products as of the date of this prospectus, we cannot accuratelypredict whether any anti-dumping duties, tariffs or quota fees will be imposed on our HTC and HPC solutions by the United States in the future. Any export requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and charges imposed by the United Stateson our IC products could significantly increase our customers’ purchase costs of our products and make our products less

 

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competitive in the U.S. market. As a result, our future sales volumes, profitability and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, we also intend to increase our export of HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storage solutions to otheroverseas markets such as the European Union. However, the worldwide populism trend that calls for protectionism trade policy and potential international trade disputes could cause turbulence in the international markets. Thesegovernment policies or trade barriers could increase the prices of our products and cause us to lose our sales and market share to our competitors in these countries.

We may be unable to make the substantial research and development investments that are required to remain competitive in our business.

Advances in technologies, such as blockchain, artificial intelligence and cloud computing, have led to increased demand for ICs of higherperformance and power efficiency for solving computational problems of increasing complexity. We intend to broaden our product offerings to design and develop solutions covering more application scenarios, including vision computing and privacycomputing. We are committed to investing in new product development in order to stay competitive in our markets. Nevertheless, if we are unable to generate enough revenue or raise enough capital to make adequate research and development investmentsgoing forward, our product development and relevant research and development initiatives may be restricted or delayed, or we may not be able to keep pace with the latest market trends and satisfy our customers’ needs, which could materially andadversely affect our results of operations. Furthermore, our substantial research and development expenditures may not yield the expected results that enable us to roll out new products, which in turn will harm our prospects and results ofoperations.

We require various approvals, licenses, permits and certifications to operate our business. If we fail to obtain or renew any of theseapprovals, licenses, permits or certifications, it could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In accordance with the laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate, we are required to maintain various approvals, licenses,permits and certifications in order to operate our business or engage in the business we plan to enter into. Complying with such laws and regulations may require substantial expenses, any non-compliance mayexpose us to liability. In the event of that government authorities consider us to be in non-compliance, we may have to incur significant expenses and divert substantial management time to rectify theincidents. If we fail to obtain all the necessary approvals, licenses, permits and certifications, we may be subject to fines or the suspension of operations of the facilities that do not have the requisite approvals, licenses, permits orcertifications, which would adversely affect our reputation, business and results of operations. See “Regulation” for further details on the requisite approvals license permits and certifications.

We may encounter difficulties in recruiting and retaining key personnel.

Our future growth and success depend to a significant extent on the continuing service and contribution of our engineers and senior managementpersonnel. Many of these key personnel are highly skilled and experienced and are difficult to recruit and retain, particularly as we seek to expand our business with respect to the HTC and HPC solutions and distributed computing and data storagesolutions. Competition for recruiting qualified personnel is intense, and recruiting personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business strategy may be difficult, time-consuming and expensive. As a result, theloss of any key personnel or failure to recruit, train or retain qualified personnel could have a significant negative impact on our operations.

Wemay become a target for public scrutiny, including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative media coverage, and malicious allegations, all of which could severely damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business andprospects.

We may become a target for public scrutiny, including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative media coverage, andmalicious allegations. Certain features of cryptocurrency networks, such as decentralization,

 

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independence from sovereignty and anonymity of transactions, create the possibility of heightened attention from the public, regulators and the media. Heightened regulatory and public concernsover us and cryptocurrency-related issues may subject us to additional legal and social responsibilities and increased scrutiny and negative publicity over these issues, due to our leading position in the industry. From time to time, theseallegations, regardless of their veracity, may result in consumer dissatisfaction, public protests or negative publicity, which could result in government inquiry or substantial harm to our brand, reputation and operations.

Moreover, as our business expands and grows, both organically and through acquisitions of and investments in other businesses, domesticallyand internationally, we may be exposed to heightened public scrutiny in jurisdictions where we already operate as well as in new jurisdictions where we may operate. We cannot assure you that we would not become a target for regulatory or publicscrutiny in the future or that scrutiny and public exposure would not severely damage our reputation as well as our business and prospects.

We mayface difficulties in protecting our intellectual property rights.

We rely on our intellectual property rights, and in particular,our patents, software copyrights and our registered IC layout designs of our ICs. Even though we have successfully registered certain of our intellectual property rights in China, it may be possible for a third party to imitate or use ourintellectual property rights without authorization. Additionally, we have developed and utilized some intellectual property that has not been registered. If a third party misuses or misappropriates our intellectual property, we may not be able toeasily differentiate our products from the others in the market. As a result, we may be forced into an adverse price competition that reduces our profit margin. As we develop new technologies, we will need to continue to apply for intellectualproperty rights protections. There is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain valid and enforceable intellectual property rights in China or in other relevant jurisdictions as needed. Even when we are able to obtain such protections, there is noguarantee that we will be able to effectively enforce our rights.

In addition, we have entered and may, from time to time, enter intocooperation agreements with cooperation partners to develop new IC products. Depending on the specific terms of each cooperation agreement, we may solely own or share with such partners the intellectual property developed under such agreement.Although we typically entered into confidentiality agreements with our cooperation partners for the protection of our intellectual property, they may not protect our intellectual property with the same degree of care as we use, even in the casewhere they own part of the intellectual property. Such cooperation may expose us to risks of misuse or misappropriation of our intellectual property by third parties. We may also find it difficult to assert or claim that third parties infringed ourintellectual property rights due to the faults of our cooperation partners, which may lead to unraveling relationships between our cooperation partners and us.

In this respect, we may incur expenses and efforts to monitor and enforce our intellectual property rights. Infringement of our intellectualproperty rights and the resulting diversion of resources to protect such rights through litigation or other means could also adversely affect our profitability.

Third parties have claimed and may, from time to time, assert or claim that we infringed their intellectual property rights, and any failure to protectour intellectual property rights could have a material adverse impact on our business.

We operate in an industry where players owna large number of patents and other intellectual property rights that are material to operations and will vigorously pursue, protect and defend these rights. Our competitors or other third parties may allege to own intellectual property rights andinterests that could potentially conflict with our own. It is difficult to monitor all of the patent applications and other intellectual property rights protection registrations or applications that may be filed in China or in other relevantjurisdictions. If we offer products that may potentially infringe on such pending applications and the applications are granted, third parties may initiate intellectual infringement claims against us.

 

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As we expand our operations with new products and into new markets, the chances ofencountering infringement claims by third parties will increase. We may incur substantial costs in defending or settling such disputes and such actions could divert significant resources and management attention. If any such claim against us issuccessful, we may not have a legal right to continue to manufacture and sell the relevant products that are found to have incorporated the disputed intellectual property. The success of such claims may also result in an increase in our costs,including additional royalties, licensing fees or further research and development costs to develop non-infringing alternatives, and negatively affect our profitability. Moreover, such claims, whethersuccessful or not, may cause significant damage to our reputation and a loss of customers, as a result of which our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Cybersecurity incidents, including data security breaches or computer viruses, could harm our business by disrupting our delivery of services, damagingour reputation or exposing us to liability.

We receive, process, store and transmit, often electronically, the data of ourcustomers and others, much of which is confidential. Unauthorized access to our computer systems or stored data could result in the theft, including cyber-theft, or improper disclosure of confidential information, and the deletion or modification ofrecords could cause interruptions in our operations. These cyber-security risks increase when we transmit information from one location to another, including over the Internet or other electronic networks. Despite the security measures we haveimplemented, our facilities, systems and procedures, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism, software viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming or human errors or other similarevents which may disrupt our delivery of services or expose the confidential information of our customers and others. Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure or use of confidential information of ourcustomers or others, whether by us or a third party, could subject us to civil and criminal penalties, have a negative impact on our reputation, or expose us to liability to our customers, third parties or government authorities. We are not aware ofsuch breaches to date. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we suffer failure or disruption in our information systems, our ability to effectively manage our business operations could be adversely affected.

We use information systems to obtain, process, analyze and manage data crucial to our business such as our enterprise resourceplanning system. We use these systems to, among other things, monitor the daily operations of our business, maintain operating and financial data, manage our distribution network as well as manage our research and development activities, productionoperations and quality control systems. Any system damage or failure that interrupts data input, retrieval or transmission or increases service time could disrupt our normal operations. In particular, our operations could be disrupted if such damageor failure includes any security breach caused by hacking or cybersecurity incidents, involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to our information or systems, or causes intentional malfunctions, loss or corruption of data, software or hardware,the intentional or inadvertent transmission of computer viruses and similar events or third-party actions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively handle a failure of our information systems, or that we will be able to restore ouroperational capacity in a timely manner to avoid disruption to our business. The occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our ability to effectively manage our business operations and negatively impact our reputation.

We currently do not have insurance coverage covering all risks related to our business and operations.

We do not maintain insurance policies covering all of our business risks, such as risks relating to properties, receivables, goods in transitand public liability. We cannot assume you that the insurance coverage we currently have would be sufficient to cover our potential losses. See “Business—Insurance” for more information on the insurance policies maintained by us. Inthe event there is any damage to any assets or incidents for which we do not have sufficient insurance coverage, if at all, we would have to pay for the difference ourselves where our cash flow and liquidity could be negatively affected.

 

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If we fail to comply with labor, work safety or environmental regulations, we could be exposed topenalties, fines, suspensions or action in other forms.

Our operations are subject to the labor, work safety and environmentalprotection laws and regulations promulgated by the PRC government and the laws and regulations of other jurisdictions which may be applicable to us. These laws and regulations require us to pay social insurance, maintain safe working conditions andadopt effective measures to control and properly dispose of solid waste and other environmental pollutants. We could be exposed to penalties, fines, suspensions or actions in other forms if we fail to comply with these laws and regulations. The lawsand regulations in China may be amended from time to time and changes in those laws and regulations may cause us to incur additional costs in order to comply with the more stringent rules. In the event that changes to existing laws and regulationsrequire us to incur additional compliance costs or require costly changes to our production process, our costs could increase and we may suffer a decline in sales for certain products, as a result of which our business, results of operations andfinancial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Failure to qualify for or obtain any preferential tax treatments that are availablein China could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The modified Enterprise Income Tax Law,effective on February 24, 2017, or the EIT Law, and its implementation rules generally impose a uniform income tax rate of 25% on all enterprises but grant preferential treatment to the High and New Technology Enterprises, or the HNTEs, to enjoy apreferential enterprise tax rate of 15%. Zhejiang Nanomicro was accredited as an HNTE on December 16, 2021 and are eligible for a preferential enterprise tax rate of 15% if it satisfies the criteria of HNTEs in each year of the accredited period.According to the relevant administrative measures, to qualify as an HNTE, Zhejiang Nanomicro must satisfy certain financial and non-financial criteria and complete verification procedures with the administrative authorities. We cannot assure youthat such policy will continue in the future, nor that Zhejiang Nanomicro will continue to be qualified as an HNTE. Moreover, continued qualification as an HNTE is subject to a three-year review by the relevant government authorities in China, andin practice, certain local tax authorities also require annual evaluation of such qualification. In the event that Zhejiang Nanomicro fails to obtain accreditation as an HNTE or are not verified by the local tax authorities, and fails to obtainpreferential income tax treatment based on other qualifications, it will continue to be subject to the standard PRC enterprise income tax rate of 25%. We cannot assure you that the tax authorities will approve the preferential tax rate of 15% as amatter of course even if Zhejiang Nanomicro has been accredited as an HNTE.

Our business operations and international expansion are subject togeopolitical risks.

Our business operation and international expansion is subject to geopolitical risks. Any significantdeterioration in the international relationship may have a negative impact on the ability of our production partners to fulfill their contractual obligations and ship the IC products to us, which could have a material and adverse effect on ourbusiness, financial condition and results of operations.

We exported our products to various countries outside of China and derive salesfrom exporting to those countries, and we intend to continue to sell our current and future products to countries outside of China. Additionally, we rely on the supply of certain tools, such as our electronic design automation, a development tool,from certain overseas providers. Changes to trade policies, treaties and tariffs in or affecting the jurisdictions in which we operate and to which we sell our products, or the perception that these changes could occur, could adverselyaffect the financial and economic conditions in those jurisdictions, as well as our international sales, results of operations and financial condition.

Any global systemic economic and financial crisis could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese or global economy may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financialcondition. For example, the global financial markets have experienced

 

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significant disruptions since 2008 and the United States, Europe and other economies have experienced periods of recession. The recovery from the lows of 2008 and 2009 has been uneven and thereare new challenges, including the escalation of the European sovereign debt crisis from 2011 and the slowdown of the PRC’s economic growth since 2012, which may continue. The market panics over the global outbreak of coronavirus COVID-19 and the drop in oil price have materially and negatively affected the global financial markets in March 2020, which may cause a potential slowdown of the world’s economy. See “—Risks Relatingto Our Operations—The ongoing global coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak has caused significant disruptions in our business, which we expect will materially and adversely affect our results of operations andfinancial condition.” Additionally, there is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leadingeconomies, including the United States and China. There have also been concerns over unrest in Ukraine, the Middle East and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in financial and other markets. There have also been concerns over the UnitedKingdom leaving the European Union as well as the significant potential changes to United States trade policies, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs regarding China. There have also been concerns about the economic effect ofthe tensions in the relationship between China and surrounding Asian countries. There were and could be in the future a number of domino effects from such turmoil on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers;insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products and/or customer insolvencies; and counterparty failures negatively impacting our operations. Any systemic economicor financial crisis could cause revenues for the semiconductor industry as a whole to decline dramatically and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

We face risks of natural disasters, acts of God and occurrence of epidemics, which could severely disrupt our business operations.

Natural disasters, epidemics and other acts of God which are beyond our control may adversely affect the economy, infrastructure and livelihoodof the people in China and may materially and adversely affect our operations as our facilities and offices are located in China. Material damage to, or the loss of, such facilities due to fire, severe weather, flood, earthquake, or other acts ofGod or cause may not be adequately covered by proceeds of our insurance coverage and could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Any outbreaks of contagious disease, acts of war or terrorist attacks may cause damageor disruption to our business, our employees and our markets, any of which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we grant employees share options or other equity incentives in the future, our net income could be adversely affected.

We plan to adopt a share incentive plan and may grant options after its adoption. We are required to account for share-based compensationexpenses in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which generally requires a company to recognize, as an expense, the fair value of share options andother equity incentives to employees based on the fair value of equity awards on the date of the grant, with the compensation expense recognized over the period in which the recipient is required to provide service in exchange for the equity award.If we grant options or other equity incentives in the future, we could incur significant compensation charges and our financial condition could be adversely affected.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls to remediate our material weakness over financial reporting, we may beunable to accurately or timely report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting and financial reporting personnel and other resources to addressour internal controls and procedures. In connection with the audits of

 

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our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness inour internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, ininternal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The materialweakness identified is related to lack of sufficient accounting personnel who possess adequate knowledge in financial reporting in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We intend to implement a number of measures to address this material weakness in ourinternal control over financial reporting. We cannot assure you, however, that these measures may fully address these deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting or that we may conclude that they have been fully remedied.

Upon the completion of this offering, we will become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, will require that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-Fbeginning with our second annual report on Form 20-F after becoming a public company. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, ourindependent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover,even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is notsatisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after we become a public company, our reportingobligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation. During the course ofdocumenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting.

In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified,supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. Generally, if we fail to achieve and maintain aneffective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. Thiscould in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of the ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraudor misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Risks Relating to Our Industry

It may be orbecome illegal to acquire, own, hold, sell or use cryptocurrencies, participate in the blockchain, transfer or utilize similar bitcoin assets in China or overseas markets where we operate due to adverse changes in the regulatory and policyenvironment in these jurisdictions.

We generated all of our revenue from sales in China in 2020. Our blockchain mining solutionbusiness could be significantly affected by, among other things, the regulatory and policy developments in China and overseas jurisdictions. Governmental authorities are likely to continue to issue new laws, rules and regulations governing theblockchain and cryptocurrency industry we operate in and enhance enforcement of existing laws, rules and regulations. For example, the People’s Bank of China, or the PBOC, Ministry of Industry and

 

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Information Technology, State Administration for Industry and Commerce, China Banking Regulatory Commission, China Securities Regulatory Commission and China Insurance Regulatory Commissionissued “Announcement on Preventing Token Fundraising Risks” on September 4, 2017, prohibiting all organizations and individuals from engaging in initial coin offering transactions. On May 21, 2021, the Financial Stability and DevelopmentCommittee of the PRC State Council mentioned the need to resolutely crack down on bitcoin mining and trading activities. On June 18, 2021, the “Notice of the Sichuan Provincial Development and Reform Commission and the Sichuan Provincial EnergyAdministration on the Cleanup and Shutdown of Virtual Currency Mining Projects” required electricity companies within Sichuan Province in China to close down power supply to businesses involved in cryptocurrency mining. On June 21, 2021, thePBOC was reported to have held interviews with certain financial institutions in China, and stressed that banks and other financial institutions in China shall strictly implement the “Guarding Against Bitcoin Risks” and the“Announcement on Preventing Token Fundraising Risks” and other regulatory requirements, diligently fulfill their customer identification obligations, and shall not provide account opening, registration, trading, clearing, settlement andother services related to blockchain and cryptocurrency business. On September 14, 2021, ten ministries and commissions, including PBOC, CAC and the Supreme People’s Court of PRC, published the Notice about Further Prevention and Disposal ofCryptocurrency Trading and Speculation Risk, which clarifies that certain cryptocurrency-related businesses are illegal financial activities and emphasizes the establishment of a mechanism to deal with risks related to cryptocurrency trading andspeculation, strengthening the monitoring and warning of cryptocurrency trading and speculation risk, and the establishment of a multi-dimensional and multi-level risk prevention and disposal system. Furthermore, on January 10, 2022, the“Decision of the National Development and Reform Commission on Amending the Industrial Structure Adjustment Guidance Catalog (2019 Version)” was approved at the 20th executive meeting, which added cryptocurrency mining activities to theelimination category in the Industrial Structure Adjustment Guidance Catalog (2019 Version), and as such, investments in activities in the elimination category, including cryptocurrency mining activities, are prohibited in China. These regulationsmay severely restrict our ability to expand our business or serve our customers in China. We cannot assure you that government authorities in China will not introduce further enhanced regulation over the cryptocurrency industry that may lead to ourinability to operate in China at all.

In light of these developments in China, we are in the process of expanding our business in theoverseas IC markets. We may be subject to restrictions relating to the transfer of blockchain mining solutions out of China, as China has recently strengthened regulations on exports of goods, technology and services. Specifically, for computers andrelated components used in blockchain mining solutions, exporting enterprises should carefully evaluate whether the mining solutions, their components, and any data or information contained are subject to export restrictions, and therefore arerequired to go through relevant export licensing procedures before such mining solutions can be transported out of China. The relevant restrictions that apply to the transfer of blockchain mining solutions by us include, but are not limited to, theCatalogue of Goods Prohibited from Export, the Catalogue of Goods Subject to Export License Management, the Catalogue of Technologies Prohibited from Export and Restricted from Export in China, the Catalogue for the Administration of Import andExport Licenses of Dual-use Items and Technologies, and other applicable export control catalogues and lists. If we are deemed to have violated export restrictions or data security regulations in China or otherwise become subject to governmentinterferences, we may be subject to administrative penalties or criminal investigation by relevant government authorities and our business expansion in overseas markets may be delayed, interrupted or compromised.

Some jurisdictions, including China, restrict various uses of cryptocurrencies, including the use of cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange,the conversion between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies or between cryptocurrencies, the provision of trading and other services related to cryptocurrencies by financial institutions and payment institutions, and initial coin offerings and othermeans of capital raising based on cryptocurrencies. We cannot assure you that these jurisdictions will not enact new laws or regulations that further restrict activities related to cryptocurrencies.

In addition, cryptocurrencies may be used by market participants for black market transactions to conduct fraud, money laundering andterrorism-funding, tax evasion, economic sanction evasion or other illegal activities.

 

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As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, control or ban the mining, use, holding and transferring of cryptocurrencies. We may not be able to eliminate all instances where otherparties use our products to engage in money laundering or other illegal or improper activities. We cannot assure you that we will successfully detect and prevent all money laundering or other illegal or improper activities which may adversely affectour reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. With advances in technology, cryptocurrencies are likely to undergo significant changes in the future. It remains uncertain whether Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Grin orFilecoin will be able to comply with, or benefit from, those changes. In addition, as mining activities employ sophisticated and high computing power devices that need to consume large amounts of electricity to operate, future developments in theregulation of energy consumption, including possible restrictions on energy usage in the jurisdictions where we sell our products, may also affect our business operations and the demand for our blockchain mining solutions. There has been negativepublic reaction to the environmental impact of mining activities, particularly the large consumption of electricity, and governments of various jurisdictions have responded. For example, in the United States, certain local governments of the stateof Washington have discussed measures to address the environmental impacts of Bitcoin-related operations, such as the high electricity consumption of Bitcoin mining activities.

The current regulatory environment in foreign markets, including the United States, and any adverse changes in that environment, could have a materialadverse impact on our blockchain products business.

We currently export our products to various overseas markets and intend todevelop our business and operations in jurisdictions outside China in the future. Our blockchain mining solution business could therefore be significantly affected by regulatory developments in jurisdictions outside China, including the UnitedStates. Governmental authorities, including those in the United States, oversee certain aspects of the cryptocurrency markets, have taken actions based on current laws and regulations, and are likely to continue to issue new laws, rules andregulations governing the cryptocurrency industry we operate in. As a result, and as discussed further below, existing and future regulations affecting the mining, holding, using or transferring of cryptocurrencies may adversely affect our futurebusiness operations and results of operations, and could even result in our or our customers’ liability for activities conducted by our customers. As described under United States federal and state securities laws may specifically limit ourability and the ability of our customers to use our blockchain mining solutions where these operations are conducted in connection with cryptocurrencies that are considered “securities” for purposes of U.S. law. The likely status ofcryptocurrencies as securities could limit distributions, transfers or other actions involving such cryptocurrencies, including mining, in the United States. For example, the distribution of cryptocurrencies to miners through the mining processcould be deemed to involve an illegal offering or distribution of securities subject to federal or state law. In addition, miners on cryptocurrency networks could, under certain circumstances, be viewed as statutory underwriters or as“brokers” subject to regulation under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This could require us or our customers to change, limit, or cease their mining operations, register as broker-dealers and comply with applicable law, or be subjectto penalties, including fines. In addition, we could have liability for facilitating their illegal activities.

Furthermore,cryptocurrencies are subject to additional U.S. laws and regulations related to transactions in commodities as enforced by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or CFTC, and to money transmission, money service business, anti-money laundering,and know-your-customer activities as enforced by the Department of the Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, or FinCEN, and by state governments.

We or our customers could be subject to regulatory restrictions or regulatory actions based on these laws and regulations.

Any restrictions imposed by a foreign government could force us to restructure operations, perhaps significantly, which could result insignificant costs and inefficiencies that harm our profitability, or even cause us to cease operations in the applicable jurisdiction. In addition, existing and proposed laws and regulations can delay or impede the development of new products,result in negative publicity, decrease demand for our products, require significant management time and attention, and subject us to claims or other remedies, including fines or demands that we modify or cease existing business practices.

 

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In addition, any action brought against us or our customers by a foreign regulator, or by anindividual in a private action, based on foreign law could cause us or our customers to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of the business. If our or our customers’ operations arefound to be in violation of any laws and regulations, we or they may be subject to penalties associated with the violation, including civil and criminal penalties, damages and fines. This could in turn require us to curtail or cease all or someoperations. Regulatory action or regulatory change could also decrease demand for our products, which would be harmful to the success of our business.

The industries in which we operate are characterized by constant changes. If we fail to continuously innovate and provide products that meet theexpectations of our customers, we may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers, and hence our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The industries in which we operate are characterized by constant changes, including rapid technological evolution, continual shifts in customerdemands, frequent introductions of new products and solutions, and constant emergence of new industry standards and practices. Thus, our success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to these changes in a cost-effective and timely manner.We need to anticipate the emergence of new technologies and assess their market acceptance. We also need to invest significant resources in research and development in order to keep our products competitive in the market.

However, research and development activities are inherently uncertain, and we might encounter practical difficulties in commercializing ourresearch and development results, which could result in excessive research and development expenses or delays. Given the fast pace with which blockchain has been and will continue to be developed, we may not be able to timely upgrade ourtechnologies in an efficient and cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, new developments in artificial intelligence, deep learning, Internet-of-things, computervision, blockchain and cryptocurrency could render our products obsolete or unattractive. If we are unable to keep up with the technological developments and anticipate market trends, or if new technologies render our technologies or solutionsobsolete, customers may no longer be attracted to our products. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

Increasing mining difficulty could result in downward pressure on the expected economic returns on Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin mining.

The mining difficulty for Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin, or the amount of computational resources required for a set amount of reward forrecording a new block, directly affects the expected economic returns for Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin miners, which in turn affects the demand for our HTC and HPC solutions. Mining difficulty is a measure of how much computing power is required torecord a new block, and it is affected by the total amount of computing power in the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network. Taking Bitcoin as an example, the Bitcoin algorithm is designed so that one block is generated, on average, every ten minutes, nomatter how much computing power is in the network. Thus, as more computing power joins the network, and assuming the rate of block creation does not change (remaining at one block generated every ten minutes), the amount of computing power requiredto generate each block and hence the mining difficulty increases. In other words, based on the current design of the Bitcoin network, Bitcoin mining difficulty would increase together with the total computing power available in the Bitcoin network,which is in turn affected by the number of Bitcoin mining machines in operation. For example, Bitcoin mining difficulty would increase based on increases in the total computing power available in the Bitcoin network, which is in turn affected by thenumber of Bitcoin mining machines in operation. From January 2017 to December 2019, Bitcoin mining difficulty increased by approximately 35 times, according to Blockchain.info. The same applies to Ethereum. As a result, a strong growth in sales ofour HTC and HPC solutions can contribute to further growth in the total computing power in each cryptocurrency’s respective network, thereby driving up the difficulty of mining and resulting in downward pressure on the expected economic returnof blockchain mining and the demand for, and pricing of, our products. Although, in May 2021, more than 54% of Bitcoin’s hash rate, which is the collective computing power of miners worldwide, has dropped off the network since its market peakas China cracked down on mining, the Bitcoin network may recovery from such decrease in the hash rate very soon and drive up the mining difficult again.

 

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In addition, the number of Bitcoins awarded for solving a block in the blockchain halvesapproximately every four years until the estimated complete depletion of Bitcoin by around the year 2140. In each of 2013, 2014 and 2015, approximately 25 Bitcoins were awarded for each block solved. The number of Bitcoins awarded for solving ablock halved in 2016 to 12.5 Bitcoins per block and halved in 2020 to 6.25 Bitcoins per block. It is expected to halve again in 2024 to 3.125 Bitcoins per block. It is unclear how the market will react to future reward halving events and how theBitcoin price and the expected economic returns on Bitcoin mining will be affected. Similar mechanism applies to Ethereum and Grin as well.

Aside from mining rewards, transaction fees are another form of incentive for participation in Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin verificationprocesses. Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin users may offer to pay a discretionary transaction fee to the network member who solves the block and adds that user’s transaction to the blockchain to incentivize prioritizing that user’s transaction.Transaction fees are discretionary, so if the transaction fees were to become the only or primary income for Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin mining activities in the future, the expected economic returns from Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin mining and thereforethe demand for our HTC and HPC solutions will decrease significantly, which will result in a significant negative impact on our business and results of operations.

If any person, institution or a pool of them acting in concert obtains control of more than 50% of the processing power active on the Bitcoin, Ethereumor Grin, such person, institution or a pool of them could prevent new transactions from gaining confirmations, halt payments between users, and reverse previously completed transactions, which would erode user confidence in Bitcoin, Ethereum orGrin.

If the award of Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin for solving blocks and transaction fees for recording transactions are notsufficiently high to incentivize miners, miners may cease expending processing power to solve blocks. Miners ceasing operations would reduce the collective processing power on the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network, which would adversely affect theconfirmation process for transactions and make the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network more vulnerable to any person, institution or a pool of them which has obtained over 50% control over the computing power on the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network.In such event, such person, institution or a pool of them could prevent new transactions from gaining confirmation, halt payments between users, and reverse previously completed transactions. Such changes or any reduction in confidence in theconfirmation process or processing power of the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network may erode user confidence in Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin, which would decrease the demand for our products.

The decentralized nature of cryptocurrency may be subject to challenges, which could negatively affect our results of operations.

A key reason for Bitcoin, Ethereum, Grin and other cryptocurrencies to have attracted many new and committed users in a short period of time isits decentralized nature, or the lack of control by a central authority. However, there are divergent views on the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies. For example, there are claims that most of the actual services and businesses built withinthe Bitcoin ecosystem are in fact centralized since they are run by specific people, in specific locations, with specific computer systems, and that they are susceptible to specific regulations. Individuals, companies or groups, as well ascryptocurrency exchanges that control vast amounts of Bitcoin can affect the market price of Bitcoin. Furthermore, mining equipment production and mining pool locations may become centralized. The concerns or skepticism about the decentralizednature of Bitcoin may cause customers to lose confidence in the Bitcoin industry’s prospects. This in turn could adversely affect the market demand for our blockchain mining solutions and our business. Furthermore, the possibility that a personor a coordinated group of people may gain more than 50% control of the process power active on Bitcoin and be able to manipulate transactions, despite the intended decentralized structure, may also erode confidence in Bitcoin. Similar mechanism alsoapplies to Ethereum and Grin. As such, our business, prospects and results of operations therefore may adversely be affected by the divergent views on the decentralized nature of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

 

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Change of algorithm and mining mechanism for cryptocurrencies may materially and adversely affect ourbusiness and results of operations.

Our HPC and HTC chips are designed for proof-of-work, or POW, mechanism, which the Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin networks use to validate their transactions. Many people within the Bitcoin community believe that POW is a foundation withinBitcoin’s code that would not be changed. However, there have been debates on mechanism change to avoid the “de facto control” by a great majority of the network computing power. With the possibility of a change in rule or protocol ofthe Bitcoin network, if our Bitcoin mining machines cannot be modified to accommodate any such changes, such mining machines will not be able to meet customer demand, and the results of our operations will be significantly affected. For moredetails, see “—The administrators of certain cryptocurrency networks’ source code could propose amendments to the relevant network’s protocols and software that, if accepted and authorized by the relevant network’scommunity, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.” and “—The acceptance of Bitcoin or Ethereum network software patches or upgrades by a significant, but not overwhelming, percentage of theusers and miners in the Bitcoin or Ethereum network could result in a ‘fork’ in the blockchain, resulting in the operation of two separate networks that cannot be merged. The existence of forked blockchains could erode user confidence inBitcoin or Ethereum and could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

Different from Bitcoin,there has been a heated debate in the Ethereum community over whether the network should switch to proof-of-stake, or POS. POS is a type of consensusmechanism used by blockchain networks to achieve distributed consensus. This switch, if ever happened, will fundamentally change how the Ethereum blockchain comes to consensus every 12 seconds. It requires users to stake their Ethereum tobecome a validator in the network. Validators are responsible for the same thing as miners in POW: ordering transactions and creating new blocks so that all nodes can agree on the state of the network. Unlike POW, validators don’t need touse significant amounts of computational power because they’re selected at random and aren’t competing. They do not need to mine blocks; they just need to create blocks when chosen and validate proposed blocks when they are not. Thisvalidation is known as attesting. Validators get rewards for proposing new blocks and for attesting to ones they have seen. If this change happens, and if our Ethereum mining machines cannot be modified to accommodate such a change, our Ethereummining solutions will not be able to meet customer demand, and the results of our operations will be significantly affected.

Customers of our HTCand HPC solutions may rely on a steady and inexpensive power supply for operating blockchain mining farms and running blockchain mining hardware. Failure to access a large quantity of power at reasonable costs could significantly increase theiroperating expenses and adversely affect their demand for our HTC and HPC solutions.

Many of the customers of our HTC and HPCsolutions engage in the blockchain mining business. Blockchain mining consumes a significant amount of energy power to process the computations and cool down the mining hardware. Therefore, a steady and inexpensive power supply is critical toblockchain mining. We cannot assure you that the operations of our customers will not be affected by power shortages or an increase in energy prices in the future. In particular, the power supply could be disrupted by natural disasters, such asfloods, mudslides and earthquakes, or other similar events beyond the control of our customers. Further, certain of our customers may experience power shortages due to seasonal variations in the supply of certain types of power such ashydroelectricity. Power shortages, power outages or increased power prices could adversely affect mining farm businesses of our blockchain customers and reduce the expected market demand for our HTC and HPC solutions significantly. Under suchcircumstances, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Cryptocurrencies face significant scaling obstacles that can lead to high fees or slowed transactionsettlement times, and attempts to increase the transaction processing capacity may not be effective.

Many cryptocurrency networksface significant scaling challenges. For example, as of December 31, 2019, Bitcoin network could handle, on average, five to seven transactions per second. Various solutions have been promoted recently to resolve this problem, includingsegregated witness, Lightening Network and the introduction of Bitcoin Cash. However, we cannot assure you that the cryptocurrencies community will accept these solutions, or these solutions will effectively resolve these problems.

As the use of cryptocurrency networks increases without a corresponding increase in throughput of the networks, average fees and settlementtimes can increase significantly. Bitcoin’s network, for example, has been, at times, at capacity, which has led to very high transaction fees. Increased fees and decreased settlement speeds could preclude certain use cases for Bitcoins (e.g.,micropayments), and can reduce demand for and the market price of Bitcoins, which could adversely affect the market demand for our HTC and HPC solutions. We cannot guarantee that any of the mechanisms in place or being explored for increasing thescale of settlement of transactions of Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin will be effective, or how long they will take to become effective, which could adversely affect the market demand for our HTC and HPC solutions.

Cryptocurrency exchanges and wallets, and to a lesser extent, a cryptocurrency blockchain itself, may suffer from hacking and fraud risks, which mayadversely erode user confidence in cryptocurrencies and reduce demand for our HTC and HPC solutions.

Cryptocurrency transactionsare entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, face risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. For example, hackers can target cryptocurrency exchanges, wallets, and custodians to gain unauthorized access to the private keysassociated with the wallet addresses where cryptocurrencies are stored. Cryptocurrency transactions and accounts are not insured by any type of government program and cryptocurrency transactions generally are permanent by design of the networks.Certain features of cryptocurrency networks, such as decentralization, the open source protocols, and the reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk offraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response. Cryptocurrencies have suffered from hacking risks and several cryptocurrency exchanges and miners have reported cryptocurrency losses, which highlight concernsover the security of cryptocurrencies and in turn affect the demand and the market price of cryptocurrencies. In addition, while cryptocurrencies use private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers mayattempt to sell false cryptocurrencies. These risks may adversely affect the operation of the cryptocurrency network which would erode user confidence in cryptocurrencies, which would negatively affect demand for our HTC and HPC solutions.

The administrators of certain cryptocurrency networks’ source code could propose amendments to the relevant network’s protocols and softwarethat, if accepted and authorized by the relevant network’s community, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The cryptocurrency networks are based on a cryptographic, algorithmic protocol that governs the end-user-to-end-user interactions between computers connected to the relevant network. A loosely organized group can proposeamendments to such a network’s source code through one or more software upgrades that alter the protocols and software that govern the network and the properties of such cryptocurrencies, including the irreversibility of transactions andlimitations on the mining of new cryptocurrencies. For example, to the extent that a significant majority of the users and miners on the Bitcoin or Ethereum network install such software upgrade(s), the Bitcoin network would be subject to newprotocols and software that may render our HTC and HPC solutions less desirable, which in turn may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. If less than a significant majority of the users and miners on theBitcoin network install such software upgrade(s), the Bitcoin network could “fork.”

 

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The acceptance of Bitcoin. Ethereum or Grin network software patches or upgrades by a significant, butnot overwhelming, percentage of the users and miners in the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network could result in a “fork” in the blockchain, resulting in the operation of two separate networks that cannot be merged. The existence of forkedblockchains could erode user confidence in Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin and could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin are based on open source software and have no official developer or group of developers that formally controls theirnetwork. Any individual can download the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network software and make any desired modifications, which are proposed to users and miners on Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network through software downloads and upgrades. However,miners and users must consent to those software modifications by downloading the altered software or upgrade implementing the changes; otherwise, the changes do not become part of the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network. Since the inception ofBitcoin, Ethereum and Grin networks, changes to the network have been accepted by the vast majority of blockchain users and miners, ensuring that the Bitcoin, Ethereum and Grin networks each remain a coherent economic system. However, a developer orgroup of developers could potentially propose a modification to the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network that is not accepted by a vast majority of miners and users, but that is nonetheless accepted by a substantial population of participants in thenetwork. In such a case, a fork in the blockchain could develop and two separate networks could result, one running the pre-modification software program and the other running the modified version. An exampleis the introduction of Bitcoin Cash in mid-2017. This kind of split in the Bitcoin, Ethereum or Grin network could erode user confidence in the stability of the Bitcoin or Ethereum network, which couldnegatively affect the demand for our HTC and HPC solutions.

Cryptocurrency assets and transactions may be subject to further taxation in thefuture.

In recent years, the rise of cryptocurrency prices and transaction volume has attracted the attention of tax authorities.As the laws governing cryptocurrencies are still evolving, the tax treatment of cryptocurrencies in various jurisdictions are subject to change. While some countries intend to or have imposed taxation on cryptocurrency assets and transactions, othertax authorities are silent. As there is considerable uncertainty over the taxation of cryptocurrencies, we cannot guarantee that the cryptocurrency assets and transactions denominated in cryptocurrencies will not be subject to further taxation inthe future, including but not limited to additional taxes and increased tax rate. These events could reduce the economic return of cryptocurrency and increase the holding costs of cryptocurrency assets, which could materially and adversely affectthe businesses and financial performances of our blockchain customers engaging in blockchain mining businesses, and in turn could have material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We face intense industry competition.

As a fabless IC design company, we operate in a highly competitive environment. Our competitors include companies that may have a larger marketshare, greater brand recognition, broader international customer base, greater financial resources or other competitive advantages. We expect that competition in the HPC industry will continue to be intense as we compete not only with existingplayers that have been focused on blockchain mining, but also new entrants that include well-established players in the semiconductor industry, and players who were not predisposed to this industry in the past. In terms of smart-NICs, we expect toface competition from industry giants such as Broadcom and Intel as well as other existing and new players that are more established than us. Some of these competitors may also have stronger brand names, greater access to capital, longer histories,longer relationships with their suppliers or customers and more resources than we do.

Strong competition in the market may require us tolower our prices, increase our sales and marketing expenses or otherwise invest greater resources to maintain or gain market share as needed to adequately compete. Such efforts may negatively impact our profitability. If we are unable to effectivelyadapt to changes or developments in the competitive landscape, our business, financial conditions and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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Blockchain mining activities are energy-intensive, which may restrict the geographic locations ofminers and have a negative environmental impact.

Blockchain mining activities are inherently energy-intensive and electricitycosts account for a significant portion of the overall mining costs. The availability and cost of electricity will restrict the geographic locations of mining activities. Any shortage of electricity supply or increase in electricity cost in ajurisdiction may negatively impact the viability and the expected economic return for blockchain mining activities in that jurisdiction, which may in turn decrease the sales of our HTC and HPC solutions in that jurisdiction.

In addition, the significant consumption of electricity may have a negative environmental impact, including contribution to climate change,which may give rise to public opinion against allowing the use of electricity for blockchain mining activities or government measures restricting or prohibiting the use of electricity for such mining activities. Any such development in thejurisdictions where we sell our HTC and HPC solutions could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China

Recent regulatory developments in China may subject us to additional regulatory review or otherwise restrict or completely hinder our ability to offersecurities and raise capitals overseas, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business and cause the value of the ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless.

The recent regulatory developments in China, in particular with respect to restrictions on China-based companies raising capital offshore, maylead to additional regulatory review in China over our financing and capital raising activities in the United States. Pursuant to the PRC Cybersecurity Law, which was promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress onNovember 7, 2016 and took effect on June 1, 2017, personal information and important data collected and generated by a critical information infrastructure operator in the course of its operations in China must be stored in China, and if acritical information infrastructure operator purchases internet products and services that affects or may affect national security, it should be subject to cybersecurity review by the Cybersecurity Administration of China, or the CAC. The PRCCybersecurity Law also establishes more stringent requirements applicable to operators of computer networks, especially to operators of networks which involve critical information infrastructure. The PRC Cybersecurity Law contains an overarchingframework for regulating Internet security, protection of private and sensitive information, and safeguards for national cyberspace security and provisions for the continued government regulation of the Interne and content available in China. ThePRC Cybersecurity Law emphasizes requirements for network products, services, operations and information security, as well as monitoring, early detection, emergency response and reporting. Due to the lack of further interpretations, the exact scopeof “critical information infrastructure operator” remains unclear. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures announced by the CAC on January 4, 2022, which became effective on February 15, 2022, the scope ofcybersecurity reviews is extended to data processing operators engaging in data processing activities that affect or may affect national security. The Cybersecurity Review Measures further requires that any operator applying for listing of itssecurities on a foreign stock exchange must go through cybersecurity review if it possesses personal information of more than one million users. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, a cybersecurity review assesses potential nationalsecurity risk that may be brought about by any procurement, data processing, or overseas listing. The review focuses on several factors, including, among others, (1) the risk of theft, leakage, corruption, illegal use or export of any core orimportant data, or a large amount of personal information, and (2) the risk of any critical information infrastructure, core or important data, or a large amount of personal information being affected, controlled or maliciously exploited by aforeign government after a company is listed overseas. While the Cybersecurity Review Measures has become final, there is still uncertainty regarding, among many aspects, the implementation and interpretation of the Cybersecurity Review Measures.

Under the current Cybersecurity Review Measures, subject to any further interpretation of the CAC and other relevant authorities, webelieve we may not be subject to the cybersecurity review by the CAC for this

 

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offering, as we are primarily engaged in the design and manufacturing of ICs or do not process any data in our business. However, there remains uncertainty as to how the Cybersecurity ReviewMeasures will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretation related to the Draft Measures. We cannot assure you thatPRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, would take the same view as we do, and we cannot assure you that we can fully or timely comply with such legal or regulatory requirements. If we become subject to cybersecurity inspection and/or review bythe CAC or other PRC authorities or are required by them to take any specific actions, it could cause suspension or termination of the future offering of our securities, including offerings under this registration statement, disruptions to ouroperations, result in negative publicity regarding our company, and divert our managerial and financial resources. We may also be subject to significant fines or other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financialcondition and results of operations. Any actions by the PRC government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in companies having operations in China, including us, couldsignificantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

The PRC government has significant influence over companies with China-based operations by enforcing existing rules and regulation, adopting new ones,or changing relevant industrial policies in a manner that may materially increase our compliance cost, change relevant industry landscape or otherwise cause significant changes to our operations in China, which could result in material and adversechanges in our operations and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

We primarily conduct ourbusiness in China. The PRC government has significant influence over China-based operations of any company by allocating resources, providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies, or imposing industry-wide policies on certainindustries. The PRC government may also amend or enforce existing rules and regulation or adopt new ones, which could materially increase our compliance cost, change the relevant industry landscape, or cause significant changes to our businessoperations. In addition, the PRC regulatory system is based in part on government policies and internal guidance, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and some of which may even have a retroactive effect. We may not be awareof all non-compliance incidents at all time, and may face regulatory investigation, fines and other penalties as a result. As a result of any changes in the government-mandated industrial policies, includingthe amendment to and/or enforcement of the related laws and regulations, companies with China-based operations, including us, and the industries in which we operate could face significant compliance and operational risks and uncertainties. Forexample, in July 2021, the PRC government released a broad set of reforms targeting private education companies providing after-school tutoring services and prohibiting foreign investments in institutions providing such after-school tutoringservices. As a result, the market value of certain U.S. listed companies with China-based operations in the affected sectors declined substantially. The PRC government has also imposed severe restrictions over the operations of cryptocurrencybusiness, which has drastically changed industry landscape in China, and as a result, due to the possible change of regulation, it may be illegal to acquire, own, hold, sell or use cryptocurrencies, participate in the blockchain business, ortransfer or utilize cryptocurrency assets in China. In addition, the National Development and Reform Commission of China had considered and also may formally classify cryptocurrency mining operations as an industry to be eliminated. We have adopteda development strategy to expand our business and promote our products and solution offerings globally. If industry-wide regulations or policies are adopted in China in a way that significantly curtails or prohibits the research and development ofour solution offerings and other aspects of our business, our operations in China will be materially and adversely affected, and we may have to cease our operations in China and relocate our offices and assets overseas, which may significantlydisrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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The ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable toinspect auditors with presence in China, and the delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SECdetermines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being tradedon a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the United States.

Our financial statements contained inthis registration statement on Form F-1, of which the prospectus forms a part, have been audited by MaloneBailey, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm that is headquartered in the UnitedStates with offices in Beijing and Shenzhen, China. MaloneBailey, LLP is a firm registered with the PCAOB, and is required by the United States laws to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the U.S. andprofessional standards. While MaloneBailey, LLP has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities in China according to Article 177 ofthe PRC Securities Law (last amended in December 2019). Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, MaloneBailey, LLP may not provide the documents and materials relating to securitiesbusiness activities in China to the PCAOB, an overseas securities regulator under the PRC Securities Law. As a result, the audit working papers of our financial statements may not be inspected by the PCAOB, since the audit work was carried out byMaloneBailey, LLP with the collaboration of their China-based offices and the PCAOB has not obtained such requisite approval. The trading of the ADSs may be prohibited and the ADSs may be delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market or any other U.S.stock exchange under the HFCA Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors with presence in China. The prohibition of trading of the ADSs and the delisting of the ADSs, or the threat of their being prohibited or delisted, may cause the value ofthe ADSs to significantly decline or, in extreme cases, become worthless.

On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rulesrelating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted amendments to finalize such rules. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us ashaving a “non-inspection” year by evaluating the annual report we file, in which we will identify the auditor who provide opinions related to the financial statements presented in our annual report, the location where the auditor’sreport has been issued and the PCAOB ID number of such audit firm or branch. If we have three consecutive non-inspection years, the SEC will implement the trading prohibition of the ADSs through stop orders, and the exact timeline for when the SECwill delist an issuer after three consecutive non-inspection years remains imprecise. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed a bill which, if passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law, would reduce the number ofconsecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the HFCA Act from three years to two.

The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, onAugust 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This reportrecommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with adequate access to fulfill its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with theenactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would bedelisted would end on January 1, 2022.

The SEC has announced that its staff is preparing a proposal to address the recommendationsin the PWG report. It is unclear what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible

 

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regulation in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of the ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securitiescould be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If the ADSs are unable to be listed onanother securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase the ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on theprice of the ADSs.

The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and qualitycontrol procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and our investors are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors with presence in Chinamakes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections,which could cause investors and potential investors in our ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements. If we fail to meet the new listing standards before thedeadline specified thereunder due to factors beyond our control, we could face possible de-listing from the Nasdaq Stock Market, deregistration from the SEC and/or other risks, which may materially andadversely affect, or effectively terminate, the ADSs trading in the United States.

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditionsor government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Substantially all of our revenues were derived in China, and most of our operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, ourbusiness, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole. The Chinese economydiffers from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the degree of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government hasimplemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion ofproductive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercisessignificant control over China’s economic growth through strategically allocating resources, controlling the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particularindustries or companies.

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, bothgeographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China couldhave a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. As a result, changes in economic conditions and government policies could adversely affect our business and results of operations, lead to reduction in demand for our servicesand adversely affect our competitive position.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit thelegal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the commonlaw system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Our PRC legal system is evolving rapidly, but its current slate of laws may not be sufficient to cover all aspects of the economic activities in China,including such activities that relate to or have an impact on our business. Implementation and interpretations of laws, regulations and rules are not always undertaken in a uniform matter and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involvesuncertainties.

 

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From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforceour legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and courtproceedings and the level of protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) thatmay have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not always be aware of any potential violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including unpredictability towards the scope and effect of ourcontractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue ouroperations.

The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence ouroperations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals.

The PRC government hassignificant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recentlypublished new policies that significantly affected certain industries including the cryptocurrency industry, which may severely restrict our ability to expand our business or serve our customers in China. We cannot assure you that governmentauthorities in China will not introduce further enhanced regulation over the cryptocurrency industry that may lead to our inability to operate in China at all. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversightand control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could significantly limit or completely hinder ourability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or, in extreme cases, become worthless.

A severe or prolonged downturn in China’s economy could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results ofoperations.

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the end of quantitative easing by the U.S.Federal Reserve, the economic slowdown in the Eurozone since 2014 and the uncertain impact of “Brexit.” The growth of China’s economy has slowed down since 2012 and such slowdown may continue. The outbreak of coronavirus COVID-19 in China has resulted in a severe disruption of social and economic activities in China. See “—Risks Relating to Our Operations—The ongoing global coronavirusCOVID-19 outbreak has caused significant disruptions in our business, which we expect will materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.” In addition, there isconsiderable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. Therehave also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially result in foreign investors exiting the China market and other economic effects. Economic conditions inChina are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. For example, sustained tension between the United States and Chinaover trade policies could significantly undermine the stability of the global and China’s economy. See “—Risks Relating to Our Operations—Our export of products to foreign countries such as the United States, may be subject tohigh tariff rates resulting from protectionism trade policies, and as a result, our future sales volumes, profitability and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.” Any severe or prolonged slowdown or instability in theglobal or China’s economy may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We may be adversely affected by inflation or labor shortage in China.

In recent years, the PRC economy has experienced periods of rapid expansion and highly fluctuating rates of inflation. During the past tenyears, the rate of inflation in China has been as high as 5.9% and as low as -0.7%. While inflation has slowed in recent years with a moderate rate of 1.6% recorded in 2017, it is uncertain when the generalprice level may increase or decrease sharply in the future. Moreover, the significant economic growth in China has resulted in a general increase in labor costs and shortage of low-cost labor. Inflation maycause our production cost to continue to increase. If we are unable to pass on the increase in production cost to our customers, we may suffer a decrease in profitability and a loss of customers, and our results of operations could be materially andadversely affected.

Increases in labor costs and enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations in China and our additional payments ofstatutory employee benefits may adversely affect our business and profitability.

The average wage in China has increased in recentyears and is expected to continue to grow. The average wage level for our employees has also increased in recent years. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass onthese increased labor costs to our customers, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we have been subject to stricter regulatory requirements in terms of entering into labor contracts withour employees and paying various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing funds, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit ofour employees. Pursuant to the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employee’sprobation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit ourability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Pursuant to PRC laws and regulations, companies registered and operating in China are required to apply for social insurance registration andhousing fund deposit registration within 30 days of their establishment and to pay for their employees different social insurance including pension insurance, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternityinsurance to the extent required by law. We have not fully paid social insurance and housing provident funds for our employees due to inconsistency in implementation or interpretation of the relevant PRC laws and regulations among governmentauthorities in China. Recently, as the PRC government enhanced its enforcement measures relating to social insurance collection, we may be required to make up the contributions for our employees, and may be further subjected to late fees payment andadministrative fines, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. As the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our current employmentpractices do not and will not violate labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. In addition, we may incur additional expenses in order to comply with such laws and regulations,which may adversely affect our business and profitability.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could affect our results of operations and reduce thevalue of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes inChina’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. In 2005, the PRC government changed its decades-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi tothe U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained withina narrow band. Since June 2010, Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. On November 30, 2015, the Executive Board of IMF completed the regular five-year review

 

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of the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right, or the SDR, and decided that with effect from October 1, 2016, Renminbi is determined to be a freely usable currency andwill be included in the SDR basket as a fifth currency, along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the Renminbi has depreciated significantly against the backdrop of a surging U.S.dollar and persistent capital outflows from China. This depreciation halted in 2017, and the RMB appreciated approximately 7% against the U.S. dollar during this one-year period. In 2018, a new round of RMBdepreciation emerged under the influence of a strong U.S. dollar and the trade friction between China and the United States. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbiinternationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and we cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. Itis difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need toconvert U.S. dollars we receive from this offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if wedecide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or the ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect onthe U.S. dollar amount available to us.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange ratefluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any material hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability andeffectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convertRenminbi into foreign currency.

We may be subject to enterprise income tax on our worldwide income if our company or any of our subsidiaries wereconsidered a PRC “resident enterprise” under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law.

Under the EIT Law, and itsimplementation rules, enterprises established outside of China with “de facto management bodies” within China are considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to enterprise income tax, or EIT, at a rate of 25% on theirworldwide income. The implementation rules under EIT define the term “de facto management bodies” as “establishments that carry out substantial and overall management and control over the production, operation, personnel, accountingand properties of an enterprise.” The State Administration of Taxation of the PRC, or SAT promulgated the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis ofDe Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise is located inChina. On July 27, 2011, SAT issued the Measures for Administration of Income Tax of Chinese Controlled Resident Enterprises Incorporated Overseas (Trial), or Circular 45, to supplement Circular 82 and other tax laws and regulations. Circular45 clarifies certain issues relating to resident status determination. Although Circular 82 and Circular 45 apply only to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC group companies and not those controlled by PRC individuals orforeigners, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 and Circular 45 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshoreenterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or individuals or foreign enterprises. A substantial majority of our senior management team is located in China. If our company or any of our subsidiaries were considered tobe a PRC “resident enterprise,” we would be subject to a EIT at a rate of 25% on our worldwide income.

 

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Dividends payable to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of our ADSs by our foreign investorsmay become subject to PRC tax.

Under the EIT Law and its implementation regulations issued by the State Council, a 10% PRCwithholding tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in China or which have such establishment or place ofbusiness but the dividends are not effectively connected with such establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within China. Similarly, any gain realized on the transfer of the ADSs by such investors isalso subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions, if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources withinChina. If we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid on the ADSs, and any gain realized from the transfer of the ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within China and would as a result be subject to PRC taxation.Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of the ADSs by such investors may be subjectto PRC tax at a current rate of 20%, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties or under applicable tax arrangements between jurisdictions. If we or any of our subsidiaries established outside China are considered aPRC resident enterprise, it is unclear whether holders of the ADSs would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas. If dividends payable to our non-PRC investors, or gains from the transfer of the ADSs by such investors, are deemed as income derived from sources within China and thus are subject to PRC tax, the value of your investment in the ADSs maydecline significantly.

PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries or limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase theirregistered capital or distribute profits.

In July 2014, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the PRC, or SAFE,promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, which replaces the previousSAFE Circular 75. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents, including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities, to register with SAFE or its local branches in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we may make in the future.

Under SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who make, or have prior to the implementation of SAFE Circular 37 made, direct or indirect investmentsin offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, are required to register such investments with SAFE or its local branches. In addition, any PRC resident who is a direct or indirect shareholder of an SPV, is required to update its registration withthe local branch of SAFE with respect to that SPV, to reflect any material change. Moreover, any subsidiary of such SPV in China is required to urge the PRC resident shareholders to update their registration with the local branch of SAFE to reflectany material change. If any PRC resident shareholder of such SPV fails to make the required registration or to update the registration, the subsidiary of such SPV in China may be prohibited from distributing its profits or the proceeds from anycapital reduction, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, and the SPV may also be prohibited from making additional capital contributions into its subsidiaries in China. In February 2015, SAFE promulgated a Notice on Further Simplifying andImproving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or SAFE Notice 13. Under SAFE Notice 13, applications for foreign exchange registration of inbound foreign direct investments and outbound direct investments, including thoserequired under SAFE Circular 37, must be filed with qualified banks instead of SAFE. Qualified banks should examine the applications and accept registrations under the supervision of SAFE. We have used our best efforts to notify PRC residents orentities who directly or indirectly hold shares in our Cayman Islands holding company and who are known to us as being PRC residents to complete the foreign exchange registrations. However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC

 

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residents or entities holding direct or indirect interest in our company, nor can we compel our beneficial owners to comply with SAFE registration requirements. We cannot assure you that allother shareholders or beneficial owners of ours who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make, obtain or update any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholdersor beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiaries, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities,limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

Furthermore, as these foreign exchange and outbound investment related regulations are relatively new and their interpretation andimplementation has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border investments and transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant governmentauthorities. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect ourfinancial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure you that we have complied or will be able to comply with all applicable foreign exchange and outbound investment related regulations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domesticcompany, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This mayrestrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

PRC regulation of loans to anddirect investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRCsubsidiaries and affiliated entities.

We are an offshore holding company with some of our operations conducted in China. We maymake loans to our PRC subsidiaries subject to the approval, registration, and filing with governmental authorities and limitation of amount, or we may make additional capital contributions to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China. Any loansto our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC law, are subject to foreign exchange loan registrations with the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, and SAFE or itslocal branches. In addition, a foreign invested enterprise shall use its capital pursuant to the principle of authenticity and self-use within its business scope. The capital of a foreign invested enterpriseshall not be used for the following purposes: (1) directly or indirectly used for payment beyond the business scope of the enterprises or the payment prohibited by relevant laws and regulations; (2) directly or indirectly used forinvestment in securities or investments other than banks’ principal-secured products unless otherwise provided by relevant laws and regulations; (3) the granting of loans to non-affiliatedenterprises, except where it is expressly permitted in the business license; and (4) paying the expenses related to the purchase of real estate that is not for self-use (except for the foreign-investedreal estate enterprises).

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRCentities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals or filings on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loansby us to our PRC subsidiaries or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds from this offering and to capitalize orotherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

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We and our shareholders face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests inPRC resident enterprises or other assets attributed to a Chinese establishment of a non-Chinese company, or immovable properties located in China owned by non-Chinesecompanies.

In February 2015, SAT issued a Public Notice Regarding Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer ofProperties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or SAT Public Notice 7. SAT Public Notice 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets through offshore transfer of aforeign intermediate holding company. In addition, SAT Public Notice 7 provides clear criteria for assessment of reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equitythrough a public securities market. SAT Public Notice 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. In October 2017, SAT issued the Announcement ofthe State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. The SAT Bulletin37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of non-resident EIT. Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposingof the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an indirect transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either transferor or transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets,may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and wasestablished for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer other than transfer of shares acquired and sold on public markets may be subject to EIT, and the transferee or otherperson who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10%. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold thetaxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes. We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions that involve PRC taxable assets, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in ouroffshore subsidiaries and investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions,under SAT Public Notice 7 or SAT Bulletin 37, or both.

We are subject to PRC restrictions on currency exchange.

Some of our revenues and expenses are denominated in Renminbi. Renminbi is currently convertible under the “current account,” whichincludes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the “capital account,” which includes foreign direct investment and loans, including loans we may secure from our onshore subsidiaries. Currently,certain of our PRC subsidiaries may purchase foreign currency for settlement of “current account transactions,” including payment of dividends to us, without the approval of the SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements.However, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may limit or eliminate our ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future for current account transactions. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject tolimitations and require approvals from, or registration with, SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Since a part of our future net income and cash flow will be denominated in Renminbi, any existing and future restrictions on currencyexchange may limit our ability to utilize cash generated in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside of China or pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs, and may limit our ability to obtainforeign currency through debt or equity financing for our subsidiaries.

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complexprocedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatoryagencies in August 2006 and amended in September 2009, and some other

 

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regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more timeconsuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that shall obtained an approval from the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, in advance of anychange-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that MOFCOM shall benotified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by MOFCOM that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investorsthat raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strictreview by MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiringcomplementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval fromMOFCOM or its local counterparts may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

We face regulatory uncertainties in China that could restrict our ability to grant share incentive awards to our employees or consultants who are PRCcitizens.

Pursuant to the Notices on Issues concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participatingin a Stock Incentive Plan of an Overseas Publicly-Listed Company issued by SAFE on February 15, 2012, or Circular 7, a qualified PRC agent (which could be the PRC subsidiary of the overseas-listed company) is required to file, on behalf of“domestic individuals” (both PRC residents and non-PRC residents who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, excluding the foreign diplomatic personnel and representativesof international organizations) who are granted shares or share options by the overseas-listed company according to its share incentive plan, an application with SAFE to conduct SAFE registration with respect to such share incentive plan, and obtainapproval for an annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with the share purchase or share option exercise. Such PRC individuals’ foreign exchange income received from the sale of shares and dividendsdistributed by the overseas listed company and any other income shall be fully remitted into a collective foreign currency account in China, which is opened and managed by the PRC domestic agent before distribution to such individuals. In addition,such domestic individuals must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of share options and their purchase and sale of shares. The PRC domestic agent also needs to update registration withSAFE within three months after the overseas-listed company materially changes its share incentive plan or make any new share incentive plans.

We may adopt a share incentive plan and may grant options after its adoption. When we do, from time to time, we need to apply for or updateour registration with SAFE or its local branches on behalf of our employees or consultants who receive options or other equity-based incentive grants under our share incentive plan or material changes in our share incentive plan. However, we may notalways be able to make applications or update our registration on behalf of our employees or consultants who hold any type of share incentive awards in compliance with Circular 7, nor can we ensure you that such applications or update ofregistration will be successful. If we or the participants of our share incentive plan who are PRC citizens fail to comply with Circular 7, we and/or such participants of our share incentive plan may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, theremay be additional restrictions on the ability of such participants to exercise their share options or remit proceeds gained from sale of their shares into China, and we may be prevented from further granting share incentive awards under our shareincentive plan to our employees or consultants who are PRC citizens.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation orcollect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally aredifficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other

 

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obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigations initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanismwith the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absenceof mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidencecollection activities within the PRC territory. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidencecollection activities within China may further increase the difficulties you face in protecting your interests. See also “—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Governance—You may face difficulties in protecting yourinterests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law and conduct our operations primarily in emerging markets.”

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Governance

Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China but instead arepurchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company.

Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities ofour subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. Nano Labs Ltd is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct ouroperations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and one of our subsidiaries in Hong Kong. Such structure involves unique risks to investors in the ADSs. Investors may never directly hold equity interests in our PRC subsidiaries withsubstantive operations. We also cannot assure you that the Chinese regulatory authorities will not disallow such a structure. If the Chinese regulatory authorities disallow the structure, it would likely result in a material change in our operationsand cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless.

If the custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including agreements and contracts such as the leases and sales contracts that ourbusiness relies on, are executed using the chop or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant local branch of the market supervision administration.

In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and the chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locationsaccessible only by the authorized personnel of each of our PRC subsidiary and consolidated entities. Although we monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly,if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designatedlegal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiary or consolidated entities, we, our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated entities would need to pass a new shareholder or board resolution todesignate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciaryduties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of ourcontrol in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

 

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Our post-offering memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that couldhave a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

We will adopt an amended and restatedmemorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering. Our new memorandum and articles of association will contain certain provisions that limit the ability of others to acquirecontrol of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions, including a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to establish andissue from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. These provisions could have the effect ofdepriving our shareholders and ADSs holders of the opportunity to sell their shares or ADSs at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similartransactions.

The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect the trading market for our ADSs.

Certain shareholder advisory firms have announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certainindices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares and companies whose public shareholders hold no more than 5% of total voting power from being added to such indices. In addition, several shareholder advisoryfirms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures. As a result, the dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may prevent the inclusion of our ADSs representing Class A ordinary shares in such indices and may cause someshareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause us to change our capital structure. Any such exclusion from indices could result in a less active trading market for ourADSs. Any negative actions or publications by shareholder advisory firms could also adversely affect the value of our ADSs.

We are a“controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

Upon the completion of this offering, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under corporate governance rules ofNasdaq Stock Market, because Mr. Jianping Kong will beneficially own         % of our then-issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares and will be able to exercise        % of the total voting power of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares immediately after the consummation of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise its option to purchaseadditional ADSs. For further information, see “Principal Shareholders.” For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governancerules, including (1) the requirement that our director nominees must be selected or recommended solely by independent directors and (2) the requirement that we have a corporate governance and nominating committee that is composed entirely ofindependent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities. As a result, you may not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governancerequirements.

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a materialadverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

We have adopted an amended and restatedmemorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to completion of this offering. Our new memorandum and articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company orcause us to engage in change-of-control transactions, including a provision that entitles each Class B ordinary share to 15 votes in respect of all matters subject to a shareholders’ vote. These provisions could have the effect of depriving ourshareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging

 

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third parties form seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Although we expect to issue all of our authorized Class B ordinary shares upon the completionof this offering, if any of such Class B ordinary shares are converted into Class A ordinary shares or canceled for any reasons, our board of directors will have the authority without further action by our shareholders to issue additional Class Bordinary shares, which will be dilutive to our Class A ordinary shareholders. In addition, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix theirdesignations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption andliquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our Class A ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. We could issue preferred shares quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change incontrol of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSsmay be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights throughU.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law and conduct our operations primarily in emerging markets.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articlesof association, the Companies Act of the Cayman Islands, as amended and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by our minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of ourdirectors to us under the Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as wellas from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands laware not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands have a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. In addition,Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (otherthan the memorandum and articles of association, our register of mortgages and charges and special resolutions of our shareholders) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles ofassociation to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obligated to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain theinformation needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companiesincorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. We may follow the home country practice for certain corporate governance practices after the closing of this offering which may differ from the requirements of the Nasdaq Global Market.If we choose to follow the home country practice, our shareholders may be afforded fewer protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

In addition, we conduct substantially all of our business operations in emerging markets, including China, and substantially all of ourdirectors and senior management are based in China. The SEC, U.S. Department of Justice, or the DOJ, and other authorities often have substantial difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against non-U.S.companies and non-U.S. persons, including company directors and officers, in certain emerging

 

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markets, including China. Additionally, our public shareholders may have limited rights and few practical remedies in emerging markets where we operate, as shareholder claims that are common inthe United States, including class action based on securities law and fraud claims, generally are difficult or impossible to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in many emerging markets, including China. For example, in China, there aresignificant legal and other obstacles for the SEC, the DOJ and other U.S. authorities to obtaining information needed for shareholder investigations or litigation. Although the competent authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperationmechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, the regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the United States has not beenefficient in the absence of a mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, no foreign securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation orevidence collection activities within the territory of China. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating tosecurities business activities to foreign securities regulators.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have moredifficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For adiscussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Act of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of ShareCapital—Differences in Corporate Law.”

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and all of our assets are located outside the United States. All of our current operations areconducted in China. In addition, all of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As aresult, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise.Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. For more information regarding therelevant laws of the Cayman Islands and China, see “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities.”

We are an emerging growth company within themeaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growthcompany,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply withthe auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we are an emerging growth company until the fifth anniversary from the date of our initial listing.

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standardsuntil such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We intend to avail ourselves of the extended transition period.

 

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We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such weare exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we are a foreign private issuerunder the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities laws and regulations in the United States that apply to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

 

  

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC;

 

  

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respectof a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

  

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and tradingactivities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

  

the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months ofthe end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Global Market. Press releases relating to financial results andmaterial events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely than that required to be filedwith the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governancematters that differ significantly from the requirements of Nasdaq Stock Market Rules. These practices may afford fewer protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules.

As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we are subject to the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules. However, the NasdaqStock Market Rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from theNasdaq Stock Market Rules. For instance, we are not required to: (1) have a majority of the board be independent; (2) have a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee consisting entirely of independentdirectors; or (3) have regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors each year. We intend to rely on all of these exemptions. As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governancerequirements of the Nasdaq Global Market. We may also follow the home country practice for certain other corporate governance practices after the closing of this offering which may differ from the requirements of the Nasdaq Global Market. If wechoose to follow the home country practice, our shareholders may be afforded fewer protection than they would otherwise enjoy under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

Risks Relating to the ADSs and this Offering

Theapproval of or clearance by the CSRC, the CAC and other compliance procedures may be required in connection with this offering, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or clearance.

The M&A Rules requires an overseas special purpose vehicle that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals formed for the purpose ofseeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies using shares of such special purpose vehicle or held by its shareholders as considerations to obtain the approval of the CSRC, prior to the listingand trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. However, the application of the M&A Rules remains unclear.

 

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If CSRC approval in connection with the M&A Rules is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining suchCSRC approval for this offering would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulators.

While the application of theM&A Rules remains unclear, we believe, that the CSRC approval is not required in the context of this offering, because (1) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings under theProspectus are subject to the M&A Rules; and (2) the PRC Subsidiaries were not established by merger with or acquisition of PRC domestic companies as defined under the M&A Rules. However, uncertainties still exist as to how the M&ARules will be interpreted and implemented, and the opinion of our PRC counsel is subject to any new laws, rules, and regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that therelevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC counsel. If the CSRC or other PRC regulatory body subsequently determines that we need to obtain the CSRC’s approval for this offering or if theCSRC or any other PRC government authorities promulgates any interpretation or implements rules that would require us to obtain CSRC or other governmental approvals for any such offering, we may face adverse actions or sanctions by the CSRC or otherPRC regulatory agencies, which may include fines and penalties on our operations in China, limitations on our operating privileges in China, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from any such offering into China,restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our subsidiaries in China, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations,prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt any such offering before the settlement and delivery of the ADSs that we areoffering. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements.

The General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued theOpinions on Severe and Lawful Crackdown on Illegal Securities Activities, which was available to the public on July 6, 2021. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and thesupervision on overseas listings by China-based companies. These opinions proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, to deal with the risks and incidents facing China-based overseas-listedcompanies and the demand for cybersecurity and data privacy protection. Moreover, on January 4, 2022, the CAC and other ministries and commissions (including the CSRC) announced the adoption of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which becameeffective on February 15, 2022 and provides that network platform operators possessing personal information of more than one million individual users must undergo a cybersecurity review by the CAC when they seek to have their securities listed on aforeign stock exchange. Furthermore, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the PIPL, which became effective on November 1. 2021, requires such operators to obtain consent of the user prior to any cross-boarder transferof personal information, as well as the satisfaction of at least one of the following conditions: (1) a security assessment organized by competent cybersecurity authorities has been passed; (2) certification of personal information protection from aspecialized institution in accordance with the provisions issued by competent cybersecurity authorities has been passed; (3) a model contract about both parties’ rights and obligations formulated by competent cybersecurity authorities with theoverseas recipient has been entered into; or (4) any other condition prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or by competent cybersecurity authorities has been satisfied. These policies and any related implementation rules to be enacted maysubject us to additional compliance requirement. As of the date of this prospectus, no official guidance or related implementation rules have been issued in relation to these recently issued opinions, and the interpretation and implementation ofthese opinions remain unclear at this stage.

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC, together with other relevant government authorities in Chinaissued the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations. The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations require that a PRC domestic enterprise seeking to issue and list its shares overseas shall complete the filing procedures with the CSRC. Such

 

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overseas securities issuance and listing include direct and indirect issuance and listing. Where an enterprise, whose principal business activities are conducted in China, seeks to issue and listits shares in the name of an overseas entity, such practice is deemed as an indirect overseas issuance and listing in the meaning of the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations. Therefore, our company will be required to complete the filing procedureswith the CSRC, if the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations become effective in their current form in the future.

Neither we nor any of oursubsidiaries has not obtained the approval or clearance from either the CSRC, the CAC or any other regulators in China for this offering. We cannot assure you that we will remain fully compliant with all new regulatory requirements of these opinionsor any future implementation rules on a timely basis, or at all. If we are subject to additional requirements that we obtain the approval or clearance from either the CSRC, the CAC or any other regulators in China for this offering but fail toobtain such approval or clearance, we will not be able to pursue this offering any further. If we attempt to pursue this offering without obtaining such approval or clearance from regulators in China, no matter it is rejected or granted but laterrescinded, or if we inadvertently conclude that such approvals are not required, we may face severe and expansive sanctions imposed by regulators in China, including fines and penalties on our operations in China, limitations on our operatingprivileges in China, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our subsidiaries in China, forced delisting of the ADSs,or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs. The CSRC or other regulators in China may also takeactions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before the settlement and delivery of the ADSs that we are offering. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to thesettlement and delivery of the ADSs we are offering, you would be doing so at the risk that the settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulators in China later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that weobtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements.

An active trading market for ourordinary shares or the ADSs may not develop and the trading price for the ADSs may fluctuate significantly.

We have applied tolist the ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market. We have no current intention to seek a listing for our ordinary shares on any stock exchange. Prior to the completion of this offering, there has been no public market for the ADSs or our ordinary shares.If an active public market for our ADSs does not develop following the completion of this offering, the market price and liquidity of the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

The initial public offering price for the ADSs will be determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters based upon several factors,and we can provide no assurance that the trading price of the ADSs after this offering will not fall below the initial public offering price. As a result, investors in our securities may experience a significant decrease in the value of their ADSs.

The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because ofbroad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. The securities of some ofthese companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in their trading prices. The trading performances of other PRC companies’ securities after theirofferings may affect the attitudes of investors toward PRC companies listed in the United States in general and consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance.

 

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In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume of our ADSs may behighly volatile due to factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

 

  

variations in our revenues, earnings and cash flow;

 

  

announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or ourcompetitors;

 

  

announcements of new offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;

 

  

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

  

detrimental adverse publicity about us, our products or our industry;

 

  

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

  

the release of lockup or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additionalequity securities; and

 

  

potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods ofinstability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incursignificant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim issuccessfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regardingthe ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs will be influenced byresearch or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us orfail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could, in turn, cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of the ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of the ADSs in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales couldoccur, could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The ADSs sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or furtherregistration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under theSecurities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. There will be ADSs (equivalent to Class A ordinary shares) outstanding immediately after this offering, or ADSs (equivalent to Class A ordinaryshares) if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full. In connection with this offering, we and our officers, directors and certain option holders have agreed not to sell any ordinary shares or ADSs for 180 days afterthe date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions. However, the underwriters may release

 

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these securities from these restrictions at any time, subject to applicable regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales ofsecurities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of the ADSs. See “Underwriting” and “Shares Eligible for Future Sale”for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in theforeseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of the ADSs for a return on your investment.

Wecurrently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors hasdiscretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in nocircumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount andform of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractualrestrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in the ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of the ADSs. There is no guarantee that the ADSs willappreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in the ADSs, and you may even lose your entire investment in the ADSs.

Because the initial public offering price is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediateand substantial dilution.

If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will pay more for each ADS than the corresponding amount paidby existing shareholders for their Class A ordinary shares. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$             per ADS (assumingthat no outstanding options to acquire ordinary shares are exercised). This number represents the difference between (1) our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS ofUS$             as of December 31, 2021, after giving effect to this offering and (2) the assumed initial public offering price ofUS$             per ADS, the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus. See “Dilution” for a more completedescription of how the value of your investment in the ADSs will be diluted upon the completion of this offering.

We have not determined a specificuse for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree.

Wehave not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds arebeing used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a mannerthat will improve our results of operations or increase our ADS price, or that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to vote yourordinary shares.

As a holder of the ADSs, you will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying ClassA ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement.

 

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Under the deposit agreement, you must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying Class A ordinaryshares represented by your ADSs in accordance with these instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs unless you cancel and withdraw suchordinary shares. Under our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering, the minimum notice period required for convening a general meeting is tencalendar days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for yourinstructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to votethe underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This meansthat you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorableoutcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary sharesprovides that the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, in the state courts inNew York County, New York) shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine claims arising out of or relating in any way to the deposit agreement (including claims arising under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act) and in that regard, tothe fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S.federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary oppose a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether thewaiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trialwaiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trialwaiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under thedeposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily has waivedthe right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in the ADSs.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs, including purchasers of ADSs in secondary market transactions, bring a claim againstus or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to suchclaims, which may have the effect of increasing the cost of bringing a claim and limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against either or both of us and the depositary under the deposit agreement,it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have, including results that could be lessfavorable to the plaintiffs in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, anaction could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit

 

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agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and therules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Moreover, as the enforcement provisions in the deposit agreement, including the jury trialwaiver, relate to claims arising out of or relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, the enforcement provisions would likely continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the Class Aordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the Class A ordinary shares, and the enforcement provisions would most likely not apply to ADS holders who subsequentlywithdraw the Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs from the ADS facility with respect to claims arising after the withdrawal. However, to our knowledge, there has been no case law on the applicability of the jury trial waiver to ADS holderswho withdraw the Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs from the ADS facility.

The depositary for the ADSs will give us a discretionaryproxy to vote our ordinary shares underlying your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not vote, the depositary may give us a discretionary proxy to vote the underlying Class Aordinary shares represented by the ADSs at shareholders’ meetings if we have timely provided the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials and (i) we have instructed the depositary that we wish a discretionary proxy tobe given, (ii) we have informed the depositary that there is no substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting, and (iii) a matter to be voted on at the meeting would not have a material adverse impact on shareholders.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that you cannot prevent the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs frombeing voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for holders to influence the management of the company. Holders of ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

Your rights to pursue claims against the depositary as a holder of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement.

Under the deposit agreement, any legal suit, action or proceeding against or involving us or the depositary, arising out of or relating in anyway to the deposit agreement or the transactions contemplated thereby or by virtue of owning the ADSs may only be instituted in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the United States District Court for theSouthern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, in the state courts in New York County, New York), and a holder of the ADSs, will have irrevocably waived any objection which such holder may have to thelaying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submitted to the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such action or proceeding. However, the enforceability of similar federal court choice of forum provisions in other companies’organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings in the United States, and it is possible that a court could find this type of provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable. Accepting or consenting to this forum selection provisiondoes not represent you are waiving compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Furthermore, investors cannot waive compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and rules and regulationspromulgated thereunder.

The deposit agreement may be amended or terminated without your consent.

We and the depositary may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. Such amendment or termination may be done in favor ofour company. Holders of the ADSs, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, shall be given at least 30 days’ notice of any amendment that imposes or increases any

 

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fees or charges (other than stock transfer or other taxes and other governmental charges, transfer or registration fees, SWIFT, cable, telex or facsimile transmission costs, delivery costs orother such expenses), or otherwise prejudices any substantial existing right of ADR holders. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended. The depositarymay, and shall at our written direction, terminate the deposit agreement and the ADRs by mailing notice of such termination to the registered holders of ADRs at least 30 days prior to the date fixed in such notice for such termination. Afterinstructing its custodian to deliver all ordinary shares to us along with a general stock power that refers to the names set forth on the ADR register maintained by the depositary and providing us with a copy of the ADR register maintained by thedepositary, the depositary and its agents will perform no further acts under the deposit agreement or the ADRs and shall cease to have any obligations under the deposit agreement and/or the ADRs. See “Description of American DepositaryShares” for more information.

You, as holders of ADSs, may have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares and must act through thedepositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder ofthe ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights that are carried by the underlying Class A ordinary sharesrepresented by your ADSs indirectly in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositarywill try, as far as is practicable, to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will tryto vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give,but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs unless you withdraw such ordinary shares and become the registered holderof such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting.

You may experience dilution of your holdings due to the inability to participatein rights offerings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities.Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act withrespect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may beunable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statementdeclared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when itdeems it expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time thedepositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or registertransfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, orunder any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

 

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We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease toqualify as an “emerging growth company.”

Upon the completion of this offering, we will become a public company andexpect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a subsidiary of a listed company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Market, imposevarious requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies.

We expect these rules and regulations to increase ourlegal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial managementeffort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the numberof independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officerliability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or to incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public companyreporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations,and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

We maybecome a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. tax consequences to U.S. investors.

Based on thepast and projected composition of our income and assets, and the valuation of our assets, including goodwill (which we have determined based on the expected price of the ADSs in this offering), we do not expect to be a passive foreign investmentcompany, or a PFIC, in the current taxable year or in the foreseeable future, although there can be no assurance in this regard.

Ingeneral, we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which:

 

  

at least 75% of our gross income is passive income, or

 

  

at least 50% of the value (determined based on a quarterly average) of our assets is attributable to assets thatproduce or are held for the production of passive income.

The determination of whether we are a PFIC is made annually.Accordingly, it is possible that we may become a PFIC in the current or any future taxable year due to changes in our asset or income composition. The composition of our assets and income may be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquidassets and the cash raised in this offering. Because we have valued our goodwill based on the expected market value of the ADSs, a decrease in the price of the ADSs may also result in our becoming a PFIC.

If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold the ADSs or ordinary shares, our PFIC status could result in adverse United Statesfederal income tax consequences to you if you are a United States Holder, as defined under “Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation.” For example, if we are or become a PFIC, you may become subject to increased tax liabilitiesunder United States federal income tax laws and regulations, and will become subject to burdensome reporting requirements. See “Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation—Passive foreign investment company considerations.” Wecannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year. Our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion with respect to our PFIC status.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about our current expectations and views of future events, which are contained principallyin the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Industry Overview” and“Business.” These forward-looking statements relate to events that involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from thoseexpressed or implied by these statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as“may,” “will,” “could,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “propose,”“potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect ourfinancial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus relate to, among other things:

 

  

our goals and strategies;

 

  

our business and operating strategies and plans for the development of existing and new businesses, ability toimplement such strategies and plans and expected time;

 

  

our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

 

  

expected changes in our revenue, costs or expenditures;

 

  

our dividend policy;

 

  

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

  

our projected markets and growth in markets;

 

  

our potential need for additional capital and the availability of such capital;

 

  

competition in our industry;

 

  

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry;

 

  

general economic and business conditions in China and globally;

 

  

our use of the proceeds from this offering;

 

  

the length and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on ourbusiness and industry; and

 

  

assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registrationstatement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Moreover, new risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to timeand it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differmaterially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This prospectus also contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical datain these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. Failure of the market to grow at the projected rate may have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of the ADSs. In addition, projections orestimates about our business and financial prospects involve significant risks and uncertainties. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from theprojections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

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The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or informationas of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events orotherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of futureperformance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, ofwhich this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$         million,or approximately US$         million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ADSs, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expensespayable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$         per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial publicoffering price set forth on the front cover of this prospectus.

A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offeringprice of US$         per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$         million, or byUS$         if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ADSs, assuming the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, remains the same andafter deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

The primary purposes of thisoffering are to increase our financial flexibility, create a public market for our Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives andobtain additional capital. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering as follows:

 

  

approximately 45%, or US$             million forresearch and development initiatives for more advanced ASIC chips, smart-NICs, vision computing chips and our Metaverse computing network platform, Ipolloverse;

 

  

approximately 25%, or US$             million for theestablishment of our manufacturing plant for product assembling and supply chain optimization;

 

  

approximately 20%, or US$             million forestablishment of dual-headquarters in the United States and Singapore for our iPollo brand and our global sales network to promote our international sales; and

 

  

the remaining balance for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

The amounts and timing of any expenditures will vary depending on the amount of cash generated by our operations, and the rate of growth, ifany, of our business, and our plans and business conditions. The foregoing represents our intentions as of the date of this prospectus based upon our current plans and business conditions to use and allocate the net proceeds of this offering.However, our management will have significant flexibility and discretion in applying the net proceeds of this offering. Unforeseen events or changed business conditions may result in application of the proceeds of this offering in a manner otherthan as described in this prospectus.

To the extent that the net proceeds we receive from this offering are not immediately applied forthe above purposes, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing debt instruments or bank deposits.

In utilizingthe proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to our affiliated entities only throughloans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. Subject to satisfaction of applicable government reporting, registration and approval requirements, we may extend inter-company loans to our wholly foreign-ownedsubsidiary in China or make additional capital contributions to our wholly-foreign-owned subsidiary to fund its capital expenditures or working capital. For an increase of registered capital of our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary, we need to submita report of such modification information to the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterparts through the Enterprise Registration System as well as complete applicable regulatory registrations. If we provide funding to our wholly foreign-ownedsubsidiary through loans, the total amount of such loans may not exceed either (1) the difference between the entity’s total investment as approved by the foreign investment authorities and its registered capital, or (2) two and ahalf times, or the then applicable statutory multiple, the amount of the entity’s net assets, calculated in accordance with PRC GAAP, at our election. Such loans must be registered with local counterpart of SAFE within 15 days immediatelyfollowing the execution of the loan agreement as required by the SAFE

 

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regulations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. Any failure will delay or prevent us from applying thenet proceeds from this offering to our PRC subsidiaries. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Conducting Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmentalcontrol of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities.”

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have not declared or paid any dividends. We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in theforeseeable future after this offering. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

Our board of directors has complete discretion in deciding the payment of any future dividends, subject to certain requirements of CaymanIslands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out ofeither profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. The declaration and payment ofdividends will depend upon, among other things, our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, our financial condition, contractual restrictions, general business conditions and other factors as our board of directors may deemrelevant. See “Description of Share Capital—Our Post-offering Memorandum and Articles of Association—Dividends.”

Weare a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may rely on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRCsubsidiaries to pay dividends to us.

If we pay any dividends, we will pay our ADS holders to the same extent as holders of ourClass A ordinary shares, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.” Cash dividends on our Class A ordinary shares, if any,will be paid in U.S. dollars.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of December 31, 2021 presented on:

 

  

an actual basis;

 

  

a pro forma basis to reflect (1) the re-designation of 57,178,154shares beneficially owned by Mr. Jianping Kong and Mr. Qifeng Sun, the founders of our company, into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediatelyprior to the completion of this offering; and (2) the automatic re-designation of all of our remaining outstanding 46,611,846 shares into Class A ordinary shares on aone-for-one basis immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

  

a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (1) the re-designation of57,178,154 shares beneficially owned by such founders of our company, into Class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately prior to the completion ofthis offering; (2) the automatic conversion and/or re-designation, as the case may be, of all of our remaining outstanding 46,611,846 shares into Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and (3) the issuance and sale by us of                 Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs offered in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price ofUS$        per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, after deductingunderwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs and no other change to the number of ADSs sold by us as set forth on thefront cover of this prospectus.

You should read this table in conjunction with the information under“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus:

 

  As of December 31, 2021 
  Actual  Pro forma  Pro forma as
adjusted(1)
 
  RMB  US$  RMB  US$  RMB  US$ 

Shareholders’ deficit

      

Ordinary shares ($0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 103,790,000 shares issued andoutstanding as of December 31, 2021)

  66,970   10,504   —     —     

Class A ordinary shares ($0.0001 par value; none issued and outstanding on an actual basis as ofDecember 31, 2021; 46,611,846 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis as of December 31, 2021 and outstanding on a pro-forma as adjusted basis as of December 31, 2021)

  —     —     30,076   4,717   

Class B ordinary shares ($0.0001 par value; none issued and outstanding on an actual basis as ofDecember 31, 2021; 57,178,154 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis as of December 31, 2021 and outstanding on a pro-forma as adjusted basis as of December 31, 2021)

  —     —     36,894   5,787   

Additional paid-in capital(2)

  201,418,380   31,591,571   201,418,380   31,591,571   

Accumulative deficit

  (223,679,698  (35,083,159  (223,679,698  (35,083,159  

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

  (2,467,327  (386,989  (2,467,327  (386,989  
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total shareholders’deficit(2)

  (24,661,675  (3,868,073  (24,661,675  (3,868,073  
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total capitalization(2)

  (24,661,675  (3,868,073  (24,661,675  (3,868,073  
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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(1)

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our additional paid-in capital, total shareholders’ equity and total capitalization following the completion of this offering are subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of thisoffering determined at pricing.

(2)

Assuming the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus remains the same,and after deduction of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, a US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$         per ADS,which is the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) each of additionalpaid-in capital, total shareholders’ equity, and total capitalization by US$         million.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in the ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS andour net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per ordinary share is substantially in excess of the book value per ordinary share attributable to the existingshareholders for our presently outstanding ordinary shares on an as-converted basis.

Our nettangible book value as of December 31, 2021 was approximately negative RMB24.7 million (negative US$3.9 million), or negative RMB0.24 (negative US$0.04) per ordinary share on an as-converted basis as of thatdate and US$         per ADS. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total consolidated tangible assets, which represent the amount of our total consolidated assets, excluding intangible assetsand deferred initial public offering expenses, less total consolidated liabilities.

Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangiblebook value per ordinary share on an as-converted basis, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, from the assumed initial public offering price ofUS$         per Class A ordinary share, which is the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price set forth on the front cover of thisprospectus adjusted to reflect the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.Because the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same dividend and other rights, except for voting and conversion rights, the dilution is presented based on all issued and outstanding ordinary shares, includingClass A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares.

Without taking into account any other changes in net tangible book valueafter December 31, 2021, other than to give effect to (1) the automatic conversion or re-designation of all of our ordinary shares into Class A ordinary shares or Class B ordinary shares, as thecase may be, on a one-to-one basis immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and (2) our sale of the ADSs offered in this offering at the assumedinitial public offering price of US$         per ADS, the mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price set forth on the front cover of thisprospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and assuming no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs, our pro forma net tangible book value asof December 31, 2021 would have been US$         million, or US$         per ordinary share, including the underlying ordinary shares represented by the outstandingADSs, and US$         per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$         per ordinary share andUS$         per ADS to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$         per ordinary share andUS$         per ADS to investors purchasing ADSs in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 

   Per ordinary
share
   Per ADS 

Assumed initial public offering price

  US$                US$              

Net tangible book value as of December 31, 2021

  US$                US$              

Pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to the conversion of this offering

  US$                US$              

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value to new investors in this offering

  US$                US$              

A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price ofUS$         per ADS would increase (decrease) our pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by US$        , the pro forma net tangible bookvalue per ordinary share and per ADS after giving effect to this offering by US$         per ordinary share and US$         per ADS and the dilution in pro forma nettangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS to new investors in this offering by US$         per ordinary share and US$         per ADS, assuming no change to thenumber of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus and assuming no

 

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exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The following table summarizes, on a pro forma basis as of December 31, 2021 the differences between existing shareholders and the newinvestors with respect to the number of ordinary shares (in the form of ADSs or shares) purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per ordinary share and per ADS paid before deducting underwriting discounts and commissionsand estimated offering expenses payable by us. The total number of ordinary shares does not include the underlying ordinary shares represented by the ADSs issuable upon the exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs.

 

   Ordinary Shares
Purchased
  Total Consideration  Average Price
per
Ordinary Share
   Average
Price

per ADS
 
   Number   Percent  Amount   Percent  

 

   

 

 
   (US$ in thousands, except number of shares and percentages) 

Existing shareholders

     US$                      US$                US$              

New investors

               US$                      US$                US$              
  

 

 

   

 

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total

     100.0 US$                 100.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

  

 

 

   

 

 

    

The pro forma information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following thecompletion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of the ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company with limited liability to take advantage of certain benefitsassociated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company:

 

  

political and economic stability;

 

  

an effective judicial system;

 

  

a favorable tax system;

 

  

the absence of foreign exchange control or currency restrictions; and

 

  

the availability of professional and support services.

However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include, but are not limited to, thefollowing:

 

  

the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States and these securities lawsprovide significantly less protection to investors; and

 

  

Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

Our memorandum and articles of association do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arisingunder the securities laws of the United States, between us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated.

We conduct all ofour operations outside the United States, and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. Substantially all of our officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and a substantial portionof their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgmentsobtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

We have appointed Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY, as our agent upon whom process may be servedin any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

Cayman Islands

We have been advised by Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP, our counsel as to Cayman Islands law, that the courts of the Cayman Islands areunlikely (1) to recognize and enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities lawsof any state in the United States, and (2) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands to impose liabilities against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of federal securities laws of theUnited States or the securities laws of any state in the United States so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature.

We have also been advised by Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP that, although there is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands ofjudgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the U.S. (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), the courts of the Cayman Islands will at common law, recognizeand enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute based on the principle that a judgment of a competentforeign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to

 

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pay the liquidated sum for which such judgment has been given, provided such judgment (1) is given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction, (2) imposes on the judgment debtor aliability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given, (3) is final and conclusive, (4) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty, (5) is not inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the samematter, and (6) is not impeachable on the grounds of fraud and was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands.

However, the Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a judgment obtained from the United States courts under the civil liabilityprovisions of the securities laws if such judgment is determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands to give rise to obligations to make payments that are penal or punitive in nature. A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings ifconcurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

PRC

Zhong Lun Law Firm, our counsel as to PRC law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the PRC courts would:

 

  

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts or Cayman courts obtained against us or our directors orofficers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

  

entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officerspredicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

Zhong Lun Law Firm hasfurther advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil ProceduresLaw. Zhong Lun Law Firm has advised us further that under PRC law, a foreign judgment that does not otherwise violate the basic legal principles, national sovereignty, security or public interest may be recognized and enforced by a PRC court, basedeither on bilateral treaties or international conventions contracted by China and the jurisdiction where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity withthe United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in China will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or ourdirectors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgmentrendered by a court in the United States or in the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on PRC law against us in China if they can establish sufficient connection to China for a PRCcourt to have jurisdiction, and meet other procedural requirements, including, among others, the plaintiff must have a direct interest in the case, and there must be a concrete claim, a factual basis and a cause for the suit. However, it will bedifficult for foreign shareholders, by virtue only of holding the ADSs or ordinary shares, to establish a sufficient connection to China for a PRC court to have jurisdiction as required under the PRC Civil Procedures Law.

 

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

Corporate History

We are a CaymanIslands holding company and primarily conduct our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries. We first started our business designing and developing high throughput computing solutions through Zhejiang Haowei Technology Co., Ltd., or ZhejiangHaowei, incorporated in July 2019. Since our inception, we have been devoted to the design and development of computing power solutions.

On January 8, 2021, we incorporated Nano Labs Ltd, our holding company, as an exempted company with limited liability under the laws ofthe Cayman Islands. In 2021, we underwent a series of corporate reorganization in anticipation of our initial public offering, including incorporation of our company as the listing vehicle, incorporation of our oversea holding companies and issuanceof shares to shareholders of Zhejiang Haowei. In May 2021, we completed a one-for-10,000 shares subdivision, following which our authorized share capital ofUS$50,000 is divided into 500,000,000 ordinary shares of US$0.0001 each.

Our principal executive office is located at 30th Floor,Dikaiyinzuo, No. 29, East Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is (86) 0571-8665 6957. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at PO Box 309, Ugland House, GrandCayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.

Corporate Structure

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this prospectus.

 

 

LOGO

 

(1)

The remaining 35% equity interest is owned by Hangzhou Lin’an Mantefu Technology Co., Ltd., anunaffiliated third party.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, the summaryconsolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2021 and the selected consolidated statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 have been derived from the audited consolidated financialstatements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for anyfuture period.

You should read the following information in conjunction with those financial statements and accompanying notes includedelsewhere in this prospectus and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

SelectedConsolidated Statements of Operations Data

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net revenues:

    

Product sales revenue

   2,004,074   39,440,897   6,186,128 

Service revenue

   122,602   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   2,126,676   39,440,897   6,186,128 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cost of revenues

   1,270,544   43,530,708   6,827,597 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Gross profit (loss)

   856,132   (4,089,811  (641,469

Operating expenses:

    

Selling and marketing expenses

   108,567   5,119,072   802,904 

General and administrative expenses

   3,187,033   24,121,823   3,783,400 

Research and development expenses

   34,476,484   145,455,181   22,813,994 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

   37,772,084   174,696,076   27,400,298 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss from operations

   (36,915,952)   (178,785,887  (28,041,767
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Other expenses (income):

    

Finance expenses

   3,747   509,764   79,954 

Interest income

   (17,915  (3,495,208  (548,208

Other expenses (income)

   800,000   (855,959  (134,253
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total other expenses (income)

   785,832   (3,841,403  (602,507
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss before income tax provision

   (37,701,784)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260

Income tax provision

   2,293   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Net loss

   (37,704,077)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Selected Consolidated Balance Sheets Data

 

  As of December 31, 
  2020  2021 
  RMB  RMB  US$ 
          

ASSETS:

   

Current assets

   

Cash and cash equivalents

  35,333,172   233,853,654   36,678,899 

Short-term investments

  —     31,888,500   5,001,568 

Accounts receivable, net

  1,165,716   —     —   

Inventories, net

  7,238,293   213,870,251   33,544,591 

Prepayments

  7,985,676   372,355,129   58,402,235 

Due from related party

  4,390,000   —     —   

Other current assets

  2,895,895   41,460,490   6,502,892 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total current assets

  59,008,752   893,428,024   140,130,185 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Non-current assets

   

Property and equipment, net

  1,066,759   7,249,044   1,136,980 

Intangible asset, net

  99,301   —     —   

Long-term prepaid expense

  550,000   —     —   

Operating lease right-of-use assets

  768,678   9,155,665   1,436,025 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total non-current assets

  2,484,738   16,404,709   2,573,005 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL ASSETS

  61,493,490   909,832,733   142,703,190 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDER’ DEFICIT

   

Current liabilities:

   

Accounts payable

  899,687   2,837,638   445,071 

Accounts payable – related party

  4,716,981   —     —   

Advance from customers

  65,404,664   917,391,899   143,888,812 

Loan payable

  5,000,000   —     —   

Due to related parties

  31,355,000   —     —   

Operating lease liabilities, current

  462,313   5,224,757   819,480 

Other current liabilities

  1,898,524   6,917,757   1,085,018 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

  109,737,169   932,372,051   146,238,381 

Non-current liabilities:

   

Operating lease liabilities, non-current

  276,653   2,122,357   332,882 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

  110,013,822   934,494,408   146,571,263 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Shareholders’ deficit:

   

Ordinary shares (US$0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 79,249,000 and 103,790,000shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively)

  51,135   66,970   10,504 

Additional paid-in capital

  163,747   201,418,380   31,591,571 

Accumulated deficit

  (48,735,214)  (223,679,698  (35,083,159

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

  —     (2,467,327  (386,989
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ deficit

  (48,520,332  (24,661,675  (3,868,073
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

  61,493,490   909,832,733   142,703,190 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Selected Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows Data

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

   (3,027,899  71,732,868   11,250,980 

Net cash used in investing activities

   (1,646,776  (36,046,123  (5,653,673

Net cash provided by financing activities

   29,365,000   164,896,124   25,863,218 

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

   —     (2,062,387  (323,476

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

   24,690,325   198,520,482   31,137,049 

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year

   10,642,847   35,333,172   5,541,850 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year

   35,333,172   233,853,654   36,678,899 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITIONAND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results ofoperations in conjunction with the section entitled “Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion containsforward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including thoseset forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

Overview

We are a leading fabless IC design company and product solution provider in China. We are committed to the development of HTC chips, HPC chips,distributed computing and storage solutions, smart-NICs, vision computing chips and distributed rendering. We have built a comprehensive FPU architecture which offers solution that integrates the features of both HTC and HPC. Moreover, our Cuckooseries are one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 2.27 Tbps, as well as one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grin mining market, according to the F&S report.

In June 2021, we established IPOLLO PTE. LTD., our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary in Singapore, to facilitate our business expansion in theoverseas IC markets.

In 2020, we began to generate revenues, which were primarily from the sales of our HTC solutions in relation to Grinmining.

Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

Our results of operations have been, and are expected to continue to be, affected by various factors, which primarily include the following:

Pricing of our products and changes in our sales mix

Our product pricing strategy and sales mix directly impacted our financial results and financial condition historically and are expected tocontinue affecting our revenue and financial performance in the future. We normally set the price of our products on a cost-plus basis after taking into account a variety of factors, including the costs of the products, market conditions, thepurchase volume of our customers, technical requirements of the application solutions and resources involved. We may not be able to set the prices at desired level for some of our products and our sales mix may fluctuate significantly in response tothe technological advancement, and the changes in market demand and market competition. If there are any significant changes in our sales mix and product prices, our overall gross profit margin and profit margin will be both affected by the changesin revenue and gross profit margin attributable to each of our products.

Performance and cost of our products

The pricing of and demand for our products and solutions are closely related to their performance. In general, more advanced processtechnologies can accommodate designs that produce ASIC chips with higher power efficiency. The introduction of new process and design technologies also enables us to gradually lower the production costs of chips with comparable computing power.However, the application of such process technologies, as well as other cutting-edge technologies in the design and production of ASIC chips, also commands high initial setup costs, particularly when the new production techniques first becomeavailable, which translates to higher per unit costs. As a result, our new generation ASICs using the most advanced technologies will need to achieve strong sales in order to justify the initial setup costs of the new production

 

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techniques and maintain our profitability. At the same time, as the most advanced production capabilities of IC foundries ramp up, the initial high unit cost for IC fabrication may alsodecrease, which will likely translate to lower fabrication costs and a positive effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Competitiveness in research and development

Research and development is key to the success of our products and solutions. Our research and development expenses were RMB34.5 millionand RMB145.5 million (US$22.8 million) in 2020 and 2021, respectively. We continue to focus on enhancing our product planning and research and development capabilities to introduce or improve products that can address the evolving customer needs ina timely manner. As existing competitors may introduce new technologies or provide more competitive offerings and more companies may enter the market to compete with us, competition may intensify in the future, and consequently, our competitivenessand market share may be affected. As a result, our ability to continue offering new and enhanced ICs as well as competitive products and technologies will have a significant impact on our results of operations.

Expected economic returns on blockchain mining activities and fluctuation of cryptocurrency price especially

In 2020, we began to generate revenues, which were primarily from the sales of our HTC solutions as applied to blockchain mining. We expectthat a significant part of our revenue will remain dependent on the sales of our HTC solutions in the near future. An increase in the economic return of blockchain mining activities would generally stimulate the demand and average selling price forour HTC and HPC solutions, and vice versa. Increases in cryptocurrency prices, especially the prices of Bitcoin and Ethereum, are the most significant factor that could increase the expected economic returns generated by blockchain miningactivities. Other factors that may increase the economic return of blockchain mining activities include, among others, increase in transaction fees, decrease in electricity costs or other operating costs, increase in computing power and efficiencyof our HTC and HPC solutions, reduction of difficulties of mining activities and increase in the number of cryptocurrencies awarded for mining activities. Fluctuation of cryptocurrency prices, such as a significant drop, may significantly affect ourresults of operations and financial condition.

Production capacity

As a fabless IC design company, we outsource the fabrication process of our chips to third-party foundry partners, the testing and packagingprocess to third-party testing and packaging partners, and assembling of final products to third-party assembling partners. We work closely with a limited number of such partners. For example, we currently mainly rely on third-party leadingfoundries in the globe for the manufacturing process of our IC products, and we cannot guarantee that they will be able to meet our manufacturing requirements or capacity or that they will not raise their prices. See “Risk Factors—RisksRelating to Our Business—Our IC products mainly depend on supplies from third-party foundries, and any failure to obtain sufficient foundry capacity from such foundries would significantly delay the shipment of our products.” It will alsobe difficult for us to establish new or alternative supplier relationship to ensure a steady supply in a timely and cost-effective manner. As a result, our ability to quickly respond to market demand and meet production timelines, as well as toprice our products competitively, is highly dependent on our third-party production partners. If our production partners are unable to meet our production capacity requirements or deliver products that meet our quality standards on a timely basis,our results of operations will be adversely affected.

We may also incur significant cash outflow at the early stages of our productionprocess because we are required to make prepayments to some of our third-party production partners to secure their production capacity beforehand, which may affect our liquidity position. In addition, any failure by our third-party productionpartners to perform their obligations in a timely manner may subject us to counterparty risk and make it difficult or impossible for us to fulfill our customers’ orders, which would harm our reputation and negatively affect our business,results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Regulatory environment

Historically, our customers were primarily based in China, and we expect a growing portion of our revenues to be derived from sales outsideChina. As such, we need to make efforts and incur costs to ensure that we are compliant with the evolving laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions that are material to our business and operations. Our ability to anticipate and respond topotential changes in government policies and regulations will have a significant impact on our business operations in such countries and our overall results of operations.

Key Components of Results of Operations

NetRevenues

Our net revenues are primarily derived from sales of our HTC solutions and provision of IC design services to ourcustomers.

The following table sets forth the breakdown of our net revenues by category, both in absolute amount and as a percentage oftotal net revenues for each category for the periods indicated:

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020   2021 
   RMB   %   RMB   US$   % 

Product sales revenue

   2,004,074    94.2    39,440,897    6,186,128    100.0 

Service revenue

   122,602    5.8    —      —      —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   2,126,676    100.0    39,440,897    6,186,128    100.0 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Product sales revenue

Our product sales revenue primarily comprises sales of our HTC solutions in relation to Grin mining. The following table sets forth thebreakdown of sales volume and average selling price (per unit) of our HTC solutions by product for the periods indicated:

 

  Years Ended December 31,  
  2020  2021 
  Revenue  Sales
volume
  Average
selling price
per unit
  Revenue  Sales
volume
  Average selling
price per unit
 
  (RMB)  (Unit)  (RMB)  (RMB)  (US$)  (Unit)  (RMB)  (US$) 

iPollo G1

  2,004,074   34   58,943   20,312,095   3,185,861   309   65,735   10,310 

iPollo G1 mini

  —     —     —     17,766,667   2,786,622   5,166   3,439   539 

In 2021, we also generated a revenue of RMB1.3 million (US$0.2 million) from sales of parts and components ofour HTC solutions as well as servers for our distributed computing and data storage solutions.

The average selling price of our HTCsolutions is primarily affected by the cryptocurrency prices and expected economic returns on cryptocurrency mining activities, and the performance of the HTC solutions. The cryptocurrency prices and expected economic returns on cryptocurrencymining activities could significantly affect the demand of mining machines and in turn the average selling price of mining machines. See “—Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations” for details of factors affecting economicreturn on cryptocurrency mining activities and the market demands. A significant fluctuation in cryptocurrency prices, and particularly in Grin, in a short period of time could significantly reverse the trend of average selling price of our HTCsolutions in certain periods of time. Historically, our HTC solutions were primarily designed for the mining of Grin, and we have launched HTC solutions designed for Ethereum in the fourth quarter of 2021.

Service revenue

Service revenueprimarily includes revenues from the provision of IC design services to our customers. Leveraging our strong in-house IC design capabilities, we from time to time provide IC design services catering to thespecific needs of our customers.

 

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Cost of Revenues

Cost of revenues represents costs and expenses incurred in order to generate revenue. Cost of revenues mainly consists of products costs,including costs of raw material, contract manufacturers for production, testing costs and staff costs for our employees involved in the provision of services. Our cost of raw material was the largest component, accounting for 81.7% of the total costof revenues for 2020. In 2021, we recorded a one-off inventory write-down of RMB26.8 million (US$4.2 million), being the largest component, accounting for 61.5% of our total cost of revenues for 2021 due to our downward adjustment on the book valueof a portion of our inventories in response to the decrease in the market price of cryptocurrency and expected economic return on cryptocurrency mining activities.

The following table sets forth the breakdown of our cost of revenues by category, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of the cost ofrevenues, for the periods indicated:

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020   2021 
   RMB   %   RMB   US$   % 

Product sales

   1,224,390    96.4    43,530,708    6,827,597    100 

Service

   46,154    3.6    —      —      —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   1,270,544    100.0    43,530,708    6,827,597    100.0 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross Profit (Loss)

The gross profit (loss) of sales of our HTC solutions is primarily affected by cryptocurrency prices, which have a significant effect on theeconomic returns of mining activities. A decrease in the relevant cryptocurrency price could result in a much lower demand of our HTC solutions, leading to lower revenues as we may have to adjust the average selling price of our products. A decreasein the relevant cryptocurrency price and expected economic returns of blockchain mining activities could also lead to increase in write-down for the potentially obsolete, slow-moving inventories and lower of cost or market adjustment and write-downfor advances to suppliers as a result of stagnant demand and decrease in average selling price for our HTC solutions. For example, we recorded an inventory write-down of RMB26.8 million (US$4.2 million) in the cost of revenues in 2021 due to thedownward adjustment on the book value of a portion of our inventory in response to the decrease in the market price of cryptocurrency and expected economic return on cryptocurrency mining.

The gross profit and gross profit margin of our IC design services are primarily affected by the average service fees we charge our customers.

The following table sets forth our gross profit (loss) and gross profit (loss) margin by category for the periods indicated:

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020   2021 
   RMB   %   RMB  US$  % 

Product sales

   779,684    38.9    (4,089,811  (641,469  (10.4

Service

   76,448    62.4    —     —     —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total

   856,132    40.3    (4,089,811  (641,469  (10.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Operating Expenses

The following table sets forth our operating expenses, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of the total operating expenses, for theperiods indicated:

 

  Years Ended December 31, 
  2020  2021 
  RMB  %  RMB  US$  % 

Selling and marketing expenses

  108,567   0.3   5,119,072   802,904   2.9 

General and administrative expenses

  3,187,033   8.4   24,121,823   3,783,400   13.8 

Research and development expenses

  34,476,484   91.3   145,455,181   22,813,994   83.3 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

  37,772,084   100.0   174,696,076   27,400,298   100.0 
 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Selling and marketing expenses

Selling and marketing expenses primarily include advertising and marketing promotion expenses.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses primarily include (1) salaries, benefits and share-based compensation of our management, finance,operations and other administrative staff, (2) professional fees, mainly consist of legal service fees for the preparation of proposed public offering, (3) business hospitality expenses, (4) rental expenses, and (5) othermiscellaneous administrative expenses, such as traveling expenses, depreciation expenses of our property and equipment, and office expenses.

Researchand development expenses

Research and development expenses primarily include (1) production and procurement expenses forproducing prototypes and procuring tools for IC design, including raw materials used, (2) technical expenses, (3) salaries and benefits of our research and development staff, (4) equipment rental fee, and (5) depreciation andamortization.

Taxation

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation andthere is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, orafter execution, brought within the jurisdiction of the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands is not party to any double tax treaties that are applicable to any payments made to or by our company. There are no exchange control regulations orcurrency restrictions in the Cayman Islands.

Payments of dividends and capital in respect of the shares will not be subject to taxationin the Cayman Islands and no withholding will be required on the payment of a dividend or capital to any holder of the Shares, nor will gains derived from the disposal of the shares be subject to Cayman Islands income or corporation tax.

British Virgin Islands

Nano LabsInc and Ipollo Tech Inc are incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and and all dividends, interest, rents, royalties, compensation and other amounts paid by these entities to persons who are not resident in the BVI and any capital gains realisedwith respect to any shares, debt obligations, or other securities of our company by persons who are not resident in the BVI are exempt from all provisions of the Income Tax Ordinance in the BVI.

 

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No estate, inheritance, succession or gift tax, rate, duty, levy or other charge is payableby persons who are not resident in the BVI with respect to any shares, debt obligation or other securities of these entities.

Allinstruments relating to transfers of property to or by these entities and all instruments relating to transactions in respect of the shares, debt obligations or other securities of these entities and all instruments relating to other transactionsrelating to the business of our company are exempt from payment of stamp duty in the BVI. This assumes that these entities do not hold an interest in real estate in the BVI.

There are currently no withholding taxes or exchange control regulations in the BVI applicable to these entities or its members.

Hong Kong

Our subsidiariesincorporated in Hong Kong are subject to Hong Kong profits tax rate of 16.5% on their taxable income generated from operations in Hong Kong. These subsidiaries did not make any provisions for Hong Kong profit tax as there were no assessable profitsderived from or earned in Hong Kong since inception.

Singapore

Our subsidiary, IPOLLO PTE. LTD., is incorporated in Singapore and is subject to Singapore Profits Tax on the taxable income as reported in itsstatutory financial statements adjusted in accordance with relevant Singapore tax laws. The applicable tax rate is 17% in Singapore, with 75% of the first SGD0.1 million (approximately RMB0.5 million) and 50% of the next SGD0.1 million(approximately RMB0.5 million) taxable income exempted from income tax. IPOLLO PTE. LTD. did not make any provisions for Singapore income tax as there were no assessable profits derived from or earned in Singapore since inception.

PRC

Our PRC subsidiaries aresubject to EIT on the taxable income in accordance with the relevant PRC income tax laws at a rate of 25%. In addition, preferential tax treatments are granted to enterprises qualified as the HNTEs. Our PRC subsidiary Zhejiang Nanomicro TechnologyCo., Ltd. has been accredited as an HNTE on December 16, 2021 and are eligible for a preferential enterprise tax rate of 15% from 2021 to 2024 if it satisfies the criteria of HNTEs in each year of the accredited period.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

An accounting policy is considered critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highlyuncertain at the time such estimate is made, and if different accounting estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur periodically, could materially impact theconsolidated financial statements.

We prepare our financial statements in conformity with the U.S. GAAP, which requires us to makejudgments, estimates and assumptions. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experiences and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under thecircumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from our expectations as a result of changes in our estimates. Some of our accounting policies require a higher degreeof judgment than others in their application and require us to make significant accounting estimates.

The following descriptions ofcritical accounting policies, judgments and estimates should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and other disclosures included in this prospectus. When reviewing our financial statements, youshould consider our selection of critical accounting policies, the judgments and other uncertainties affecting the application of such policies, and the sensitivity of reported results to changes in conditions and assumptions.

 

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Revenue Recognition

Consistent with the criteria of ASC 606 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” we recognize revenue to depict the transfer ofpromised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue consists of the invoiced value for the sales net of value-added tax(“VAT”), business tax and applicable local government levies.

Product sales revenue

We generate revenue primarily from the sale of product solutions by integrating out self-designed IC products (e.g., HTC solutions) directly toa customer, such as a business or individual engaged in mining activities.

We recognize revenue at a point in time when the control ofthe products has been transferred to customers. The transfer of control is considered complete when products have been picked up by or shipped to customers. Our sales arrangements usually require prepayment before the delivery of products. Theadvance payment is not considered a significant financing component. We elected to account for shipping and handling fees as a fulfillment cost.

Service revenue

We also generate revenuefrom our design services under separate contracts. Revenue from the design service to the customer is recognized as the performance obligation is satisfied over time over the service period.

Contract liabilities

Contractliabilities are recorded when consideration is received from a customer prior to transferring the control of goods or services to the customer. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, we recorded contract liabilities of RMB65.4 million andRMB917.4 million, respectively, which were presented as advance from customers on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we recognized RMB1.2 million and RMB4.2 million ofcontract liabilities as revenue, respectively.

Inventories, net

Inventories, consisting of raw materials, work in process and finished goods. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizablevalue. Cost of inventory is determined using the weighted average cost method. Adjustments are recorded to write down the cost of inventory to the estimated net realizable value due to slow-moving and obsolete inventory, which is dependent uponfactors such as historical and forecasted consumer demand, and promotional environment.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts receivable is carried at original invoiced amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts when collection of the amountis no longer probable. In evaluating the collectability of receivable balances, we consider factors such as customer circumstances or age of the receivable. Receivables are written off after all collection efforts have ceased. Collateral is nottypically required, nor is interest charged on receivables.

Impairment of Long-lived assets

For long-lived assets including property and equipment and intangible asset with finite lives, we evaluate for impairment whenever events orchanges (triggering events) indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may no longer be recoverable. We recognize an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash

 

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flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. For the years endedDecember 31, 2020 and 2021, no impairment of long-lived assets was recognized.

Share-based compensation

Restricted shares granted to employees and directors are accounted for under ASC Topic 718, “Compensation—Stock compensation”(“ASC 718”). In accordance with ASC 718, we determine whether restricted shares should be classified and accounted for as an equity award. All grants of restricted shares to employees and directors classified as equity awards arerecognized in the financial statements based on their grant date fair values. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service periods in the statements ofoperations. In addition, compensation expense must be recognized for the change in fair value of any awards modified, repurchased or cancelled after the grant date.

Income taxes

We account forincome taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measuredusing the tax income rates that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized in theforeseeable future.

In accordance with the provisions of ASC 740, “Income taxes,” we recognize in the financial statements theimpact of a tax position if a tax return position or future tax position is “more likely than not” to be sustained upon examination based solely on the technical merits of the position. Tax positions that meet the recognition threshold aremeasured using a cumulative probability approach, at the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon settlement. Interest and penalties arising from underpayment of income taxes are computedin accordance with the applicable tax law and is classified in the consolidated statements of operations as income tax expense.

Related partytransactions

A transaction is considered to be a related party transaction when there is a transfer of resources or obligationsbetween related parties. Related parties may be individuals or corporate entities.

Transactions involving related parties cannot bepresumed to be carried out on an arm’s-length basis, as the requisite conditions of competitive, free market dealings may not exist. Representations about transactions with related parties, if made, shallnot imply that the related party transactions were consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm’s-length transactions unless such representations can be substantiated. It is not, however,practical to determine the fair value of amounts due from/to related parties due to their related party nature.

 

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our selected consolidated profit or loss data for the years indicated. This information should be read togetherwith our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results of operations in any period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period.

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net revenues:

    

Product sales revenue

   2,004,074   39,440,897   6,186,128 

Service revenue

   122,602   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   2,126,676   39,440,897   6,186,128 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cost of revenues

   1,270,544   43,530,708   6,827,597 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Gross profit (loss)

   856,132   (4,089,811  (641,469

Operating expenses:

    

Selling and marketing expenses

   108,567   5,119,072   802,904 

General and administrative expenses

   3,187,033   24,121,823   3,783,400 

Research and development expenses

   34,476,484   145,455,181   22,813,994 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

   37,772,084   174,696,076   27,400,298 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss from operations

   (36,915,952)   (178,785,887  (28,041,767
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Other expenses (income):

    

Finance expenses

   3,747   509,764   79,954 

Interest income

   (17,915  (3,495,208  (548,208

Other expenses (income)

   800,000   (855,959  (134,253
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Total other expenses (income)

   785,832   (3,841,403  (602,507
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Loss before income tax provision

   (37,701,784)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260

Income tax provision

   2,293   —     —   
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Net loss

   (37,704,077)   (174,944,484  (27,439,260
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020

Net revenues. Our net revenues increased significantly to RMB39.4 million (US$6.2 million) in 2021 from RMB2.1 million in 2020,primarily due to increase in the sales of our HTC solutions in relation to Grin mining.

Cost of revenues. Our cost ofrevenues increased significantly to RMB43.5 million (US$6.8 million) in 2021 from RMB1.3 million in 2020. The increase in cost of revenues was primarily due to our inventory write-down of RMB26.8 million (US$4.2 million) in 2021 as a result of ourdownward adjustment for the book value of a portion of our inventories in response to the decrease of the market price of cryptocurrency and expected economic returns on cryptocurrency mining activities.

Gross profit (loss). As a result of the foregoing, we recorded gross loss of RMB4.1 million (US$0.6 million) in 2021. In 2020,we recorded gross profit of RMB0.9 million.

 

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Operating expenses. Our total operating expenses increasedsignificantly to RMB174.7 million (US$27.4 million) in 2021 from RMB37.8 million in 2020, primarily due to the increase in our general and administrative expenses and our research and development expenses.

 

  

Selling and marketing expenses. Our selling expenses increased toRMB5.1 million (US$0.8 million) in 2021 from RMB0.1 million in 2020. The selling and marketing expenses in 2021 was primarily related to charges for our marketing events and exhibition participation, and employee expenses for our sales and marketingpersonnel.

 

  

General and administrative expenses. Our general and administrativeexpenses increased significantly to RMB24.1 million (US$3.8 million) in 2021 from RMB3.2 million in 2020, primarily due to the significant increase in staff cost relating to general and administrative personnel, rental expenses and expenses forprofessional services.

 

  

Research and development expenses. Our research and developmentexpenses increased significantly to RMB145.5 million (US$22.8 million) in 2021 from RMB34.5 million in 2020, primarily due to the increase in research and development initiatives, which resulted in higher staff cost relating to research anddevelopment personnel, material cost and designing cost.

Loss from operations. As a result of the foregoing, ourloss from operations increased by 384.3% to RMB178.8 million (US$28.0 million) in 2021 from RMB36.9 million in 2020.

Financeexpenses. Our finance expenses increased to RMB0.5 million (US$0.08 million) in 2021 from RMB3,747 in 2020, primarily due to the losses caused by foreign exchange rate fluctuations and increased bank charges for ourfinancial activities.

Interest income. Our interest income, which primarily consists of interest income from bank,increased significantly to RMB3.5 million (US$0.5 million) in 2021 from RMB0.02 million in 2020, primarily due to the increase of our cash deposit in bank.

Other (income) expenses. We recorded other income of RMB0.9 million (US$0.1 million) in 2021 for software VAT refund. We recorded otherexpenses of RMB0.8 million in 2020 for our donation to charities.

Net loss. As a result of the foregoing, our net lossincreased by 364.0% to RMB174.9 million (US$27.4 million) in 2021 from RMB37.7 million in 2020.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary source of liquidity historically has been cash generated from our business operations, equity contributions from our shareholdersand borrowings, which have historically been sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements.

As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, our cash and cash equivalents were RMB35.3 million and RMB233.9 million (US$36.7 million),respectively. Our cash and cash equivalents primarily consist of cash in bank and highly liquid investments placed with banks, which are unrestricted to withdrawal and use and have original maturities of less than three months.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, and anticipated cash flow from operations, together with the net proceeds from thisoffering, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for general corporate purposes for the next 12 months from the date of this prospectus. We intend to use portion of the net proceeds from this offering to fund our operations over thenext 12 months. See “Use of Proceeds.” However, the exact amount of proceeds we use for our operations and expansion plans will depend on the amount of cash generated from our operations and any strategic decisions we may make that couldalter our expansion plans and

 

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the amount of cash necessary to fund these plans. We may, however, decide to enhance our liquidity position or increase our cash reserve for future investments through additional capital andfinance funding. We may need additional cash resources in the future if we experience changes in business conditions or other developments, or if we find and wish to pursue opportunities for investments, acquisitions, capital expenditures or similaractions. If we determine that our cash requirements exceed the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have on hand at the time, we may seek to issue equity or debt securities or obtain credit facilities. The issuance and sale of additional equitywould result in further dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could result in operating covenants that would restrict our operations. We cannot assure you that financing will beavailable in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

Our ability to manage our working capital, including receivables and otherassets and liabilities and accrued liabilities, may materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The followingtable sets forth our selected consolidated cash flow data for the years indicated:

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2020  2021 
   RMB  RMB  US$ 

Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities

   (3,027,899  71,732,868   11,250,980 

Net cash used in investing activities

   (1,646,776  (36,046,123  (5,653,673

Net cash provided by financing activities

   29,365,000   164,896,124   25,863,218 

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

   —     (2,062,387  (323,476

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

   24,690,325   198,520,482   31,137,049 

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year

   10,642,847   35,333,172   5,541,850 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year

   35,333,172   233,853,654   36,678,899 
  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

Operating Activities

Net cash provided by operating activities for 2021 was RMB71.7 million (US$11.3 million), which primarily reflected our net loss of RMB174.9million (US$27.4 million) as mainly adjusted for (1) amortization of right-of-use assets of RMB2.9 million (US$0.5 million), (2) depreciation and amortization expenses of RMB2.6 million (US$0.4 million), (3) inventory write-down of RMB26.8 million(US$4.2 million), which was primarily due to the downward adjustment on the book value of a portion of our inventories, and (4) changes in working capital. Adjustment for changes in working capital primarily consisted of an increase of RMB852.0million (US$133.6 million) in advances from customers, which primarily related to the prepayments from customers to our HTC and HPC solutions, partially offset by (1) an increase of RMB233.4 million (US$36.6 million) in inventories, (2) anincrease of RMB364.4 million (US$57.1 million) in prepayments to our suppliers, which primarily related to the production of ICs, and (3) an increase of RMB38.6 million (US$6.0 million) in other current assets, which primarily included value-addedtax recoverable, deferred offering related expenses and deposits for our office space leases.

Net cash used in operating activities for2020 was RMB3.0 million, which primarily reflected our net loss of RMB37.7 million as mainly adjusted for (1) amortization of right-of-use assets ofRMB0.3 million, (2) depreciation and amortization expenses of RMB0.4 million, (3) share-based compensation of RMB0.2 million and (4) changes in working capital. Adjustment for changes in working capital primarily consisted of anincrease of RMB45.0 million in advances from customers, which primarily related to the prepayments from customers to our HTC and HPC solutions, partially offset by (1) an increase of RMB7.2 million in inventories, (2) an increaseof RMB2.1 million in prepayments to our suppliers, which primarily related to the production of ICs, and (3) an increase of RMB2.6 million in other current assets, which primarily included value-added tax recoverable, advances toemployees and deposits for our office space leases.

 

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Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities for 2021 was RMB36.0 million (US$5.7 million), mainly attributable to (1) purchase of short-terminvestment of RMB32.3 million (US$5.1 million), which was primarily for short-term wealth management products issued by reputable commercial banks and (2) purchase of property and equipment of RMB8.7 million(US$1.4 million), which was primarily for computers and electronic equipment, partially offset by collection of loan provided to a related party of RMB4.5 million (US$0.7 million).

Net cash used in investing activities for 2020 was RMB1.6 million, mainly attributable to (1) loans of RMB2.3 million providedto Hangzhou Weiditu Technology Co., Ltd., a related party, which was fully settled in March 2021; and (2) purchase of property and equipment of RMB0.9 million, partially offset by collection of loan provided to a related party ofRMB1.6 million.

Financing Activities

Net cash generated from financing activities for 2021 was RMB164.9 million (US$25.9 million), mainly attributable to proceeds from issuance ofordinary shares of RMB201.2 million (US$31.6 million), partially offset by (1) repayment to related parties of RMB31.4 million (US$4.9 million) and (2) repayment of loan payable of RMB5.0 million (US$0.8 million).

Net cash generated from financing activities for 2020 was RMB29.4 million, mainly attributable to proceeds from related parties ofRMB30.3 million, partially offset by repayment to related parties of RMB0.9 million.

Capital Expenditures

We made capital expenditures of RMB0.9 million and RMB8.7 million (US$1.4 million) in 2020 and 2021, respectively. In these periods, ourcapital expenditures were mainly used for procurement of computers and electronic equipment for research and development.

We plan tofund our future capital expenditures with our existing cash balance and proceeds from this offering. We will continue to make capital expenditures to meet the expected growth of our business, including for procurement of photomask, mold and variousintellectual properties.

Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting and financial reporting personnel and other resources to addressour internal controls and procedures. In connection with the audits of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified onematerial weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination ofdeficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The material weakness identified is related to lack of sufficient accounting personnel who possess adequate knowledge in financial reportingin accordance with U.S. GAAP.

We intend to undertake measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to address thematerial weakness identified, including implementing regular and continuous U.S. GAAP accounting and financial reporting training programs for our accounting and financial reporting personnel. In addition, we plan to take the following initiativesto improve our internal control over financial reporting to address the material weakness that have been identified:

 

  

hiring additional qualified accounting and reporting personnel who are equipped with the relevant U.S. GAAP andSEC reporting experience and qualifications to strengthen our financial reporting function and to set up a financial and system control framework; and

 

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enhancing our internal audit function as well as engaging an external consulting firm to assist us with assessingour Sarbanes-Oxley compliance readiness and improving overall internal controls.

However, we cannot assure you that wewill remediate our material weakness in a timely manner. The process of designing and implementing an effective financial reporting system is a continuous effort that requires us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economicand regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a financial reporting system that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligation. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Operations—If we fail to implementand maintain an effective system of internal controls to remediate our material weakness over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, andinvestor confidence and the market price of the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.”

As a company with less thanUS$1.07 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that areotherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’sinternal control over financial reporting.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021:

 

   Payments due by period 
   Total   2022-2024   2025 and
thereafter
 
   (RMB) 

Operating lease obligations

   7,776,761    7,776,761    —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   7,776,761    7,776,761    —   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Off Balance Sheet Commitments and Arrangements

We have not entered into any off-balance sheet financial guarantees or other off-balance sheet commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our shares and classified as shareholder’s equityor that are not reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to suchentity. We do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or product development services with us.

Holding Company Structure

Nano Labs Ltdis a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and Hong Kong. As a result, Nano Labs Ltd’s ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by oursubsidiaries in China and Hong Kong. If our existing PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries or any newly formed ones incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us.

In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined inaccordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries did not have aggregate retained earnings as determined under PRC accounting standards as of December 31, 2021. Pursuant to the PRC Company Law, our PRC subsidiaries arerequired to make contribution of at least 10% of their after-tax profits calculated in accordance with the PRC GAAP to the statutory common reserve. Contribution is not required if the reserve fund has reached 50% of the registered capital of oursubsidiaries. As of December 31, 2021, our PRC subsidiaries had no restricted amount under the reserve fund.

 

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None of our PRC subsidiaries has issued any dividends or distributions to respective holdingcompanies or any investors as of the date of this prospectus. Our PRC subsidiaries generate and retain cash generated from operating activities and re-invest it in our business. Historically, our PRC subsidiaries also received equity financing fromits shareholders to fund business operations of our PRC subsidiaries. In 2020 and 2021, we transferred cash proceeds of nil and US$21.1 million, respectively, to our PRC subsidiaries for the settlement of intercompany transactions and as paid-incapital for our PRC subsidiaries. In the future, cash proceeds raised from overseas financing activities, including this offering, may be, and are intended to be, transferred by us through subsidiaries in Hong Kong to our PRCsubsidiaries via capital contribution and shareholder loans, as the case may be. Subsidiaries in China that receives such cash proceeds then will transfer funds to its subsidiaries to meet the capital needs of our business operations. For detailsabout the applicable PRC rules that limit transfer of funds from overseas to our PRC subsidiaries, see “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and directinvestment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries andaffiliated entities.”

The structure of cash flows within our organization, and the applicable regulations, are as follows. Afterforeign investors’ funds enter Nano Labs Ltd, our holding company, at the close of this offering, subject to the cash demand of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries, the funds can be transferred to our wholly owned Cayman subsidiaries, then toour wholly owned BVI subsidiaries, then to our Hong Kong subsidiaries, which will further distribute the funds to our PRC subsidiaries. If we intend to distribute dividends, PRC subsidiaries will transfer the dividends to our Hong Kongsubsidiaries in accordance with the laws and regulations of the PRC, and then our Hong Kong subsidiaries will transfer the dividends all the way up to Nano Labs Ltd, and the dividends will be distributed from Nano Labs Ltd to all shareholdersrespectively in proportion to the shares they hold, regardless of whether the shareholders are U.S. investors or investors in other countries or regions. The cross-border transfer of funds within our corporate group under our direct holdingstructure must be legal and compliant with relevant laws and regulations of China. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRCsubsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to our affiliated entities only through loans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factor—RisksRelating to Conducting Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of thisoffering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries and affiliated entities.” We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. Wehave, from time to time, transferred cash between our PRC subsidiaries to fund their operations, and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between such subsidiaries. As of the date of this prospectus,no cash generated from our PRC subsidiaries has been used to fund operations of any of our non-PRC subsidiaries. We may encounter difficulties in our ability to transfer cash between PRC subsidiaries and non-PRC subsidiaries largely due to variousPRC laws and regulations imposed on foreign exchange. However, as long as we are compliant with the procedures for approvals from foreign exchange authorities and banks in China, the relevant laws and regulations in China do not impose limitationson the amount of funds that we can transfer out of China. We currently do not have any cash management policy that dictate the transfer of cash between our subsidiaries. See “Regulation—PRC Laws and Regulations relating to ForeignExchange” for details of such procedures. We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately                 , of which approximately                will be transferred to our PRC subsidiaries for (1) research and development initiatives for more advanced ASIC chips, smart-NICs, vision computing chipsand our Metaverse computing network platform, Ipolloverse, (2) the establishment of our manufacturing plant for product assembling and supply chain optimization, and (3) working capital and other general corporate activities within China. See“Use of Proceeds” for more details.

 

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Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially expose us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accountsreceivable. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, our cash and cash equivalents amounted to RMB35.3 million and RMB233.9 million (US$36.7 million), respectively. We place substantially all of our cash and cash equivalents with financialinstitutions with high credit ratings and quality in China. Historically, deposit in Chinese banks are secure due to the state policy on protecting depositors’ interests. In the event of bankruptcy of one of these financial institutions, we maynot be able to claim its cash and demand deposits back in full. We continue to monitor the financial strength of the financial institutions. There has been no recent history of default in relation to these financial institutions.

Accounts receivable are unsecured and all of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2020 are derived from sales of HTC solutions to oneof our customers. We conduct credit evaluations of customers, and generally do not require collateral or other security from our customers. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts primarily based upon the age of the receivables and factorssurrounding the credit risk of specific customers.

Concentration of Suppliers

There were purchases from two suppliers for our outsourced production costs, which represented 37.7% and 35.6% of the total purchase amountmade by us for 2020, respectively. In 2021, purchases from top two suppliers represented 50.0% and 34.0% of the total purchase amount made by us.

Liquidity Risk

Our policy is toregularly monitor our liquidity requirements and our compliance with lending covenants, to ensure that we maintain sufficient reserves of cash and readily realizable marketable securities and adequate committed lines of funding from major financialinstitutions to meet its liquidity requirements in the short and longer term. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources” for details.

CurrencyRisk

Our operations are primarily in China. Our reporting currency is denominated in RMB. We are exposed to currency riskprimarily through sales and purchases which give rise to receivables, payables and cash balances that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the operations to which the transactions relate. Thus, our revenues and resultsof operations may be impacted by exchange rate fluctuations between RMB and U.S. dollars. We incurred and recognized foreign currency translation gain of RMB14.0 thousand and foreign currency translation loss of RMB0.5 million(US$0.1 million) in 2020 and 2021, respectively, as a result of changes in the exchange rate.

Inflation

To date, inflation in China has not materially affected our results of operations. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, theyear-over-year percent changes in the consumer price index for December 2020 and 2021 were increases of 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively. Although we have not been materially affected by inflation in the past, we may be affected ifChina or Hong Kong experiences higher rates of inflation in the future.

Recently Adopted or Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments(Topic 326)”, and issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance, transitional guidance and other

 

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interpretive guidance between November 2018 and March 2020 within ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04, ASU 2019-05, ASU 2019-11, ASU 2020-02 and ASU 2020-03. ASU2016-13 introduces new guidance for credit losses on instruments within its scope, which significantly changes the way entities recognize impairment of many financial assets by requiring immediate recognitionof estimated credit losses expected to occur over their remaining life, instead of when incurred. For us, the guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Allentities may adopt this ASU through a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective (that is, a modified-retrospective approach). We do not expect the adoptionto have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740)”: which simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to thegeneral principles in ASC 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2021. The adoption has no impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Except as mentioned above, we do not believe other recently issued but not yet effective accounting standards, if currently adopted, wouldhave a material effect on our financial statements.

 

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

The information presented in this section has been derived from an industry report commissioned by us and prepared by Frost &Sullivan, an independent research firm, regarding our industry and our market position. We refer to this report as the F&S report. We believe that the sources of such information are appropriate, and we have taken reasonable care in extractingand reproducing such information. We have no reason to believe that such information is false or misleading in any material respect or that any fact has been omitted that would render such information false or misleading in any material respect.However, neither we nor any other party involved in this offering has independently verified such information, and neither we nor any other party involved in this offering makes any representation as to the accuracy or completeness of suchinformation. Therefore, investors are cautioned not to place any undue reliance on the information, including statistics and estimates, set forth in this section or similar information included elsewhere in this prospectus.

OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MARKET

GlobalIC Market

Integrated circuits, or ICs, are small pieces of semiconducting material, usually silicon, that contain a set of electroniccircuits where thousands of resistors, capacitors and transistors are fabricated. An IC has a wide variety of applications and is commonly used as a microprocessor, memory and amplifier.

ICs can be classified into two types, i.e., processing ICs and other ICs. While the latter includes memory and other chips, such as basebandchips and radio frequency chips, processing ICs can be categorized into two main types, i.e., general-purpose and application-specific integrated circuits, or ASIC. Unlike general-purpose ICs such as central processing units, or CPUs, graphicsprocessing units, or GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays, or FPGAs, an ASIC is customized for a particular use and can lead to speed improvements as it is specifically designed to perform a certain task. In addition, because an ASIC containsonly the circuitry needed for the specific application, it can be designed with a smaller physical size, which only requires lower electrical power consumption while maintaining higher operating efficiency, and is easier to be deployed in small ormobile devices. The following table shows the classification and the basic functions of each type of ICs:

 

Types of ICs

  

Basic Functions

Processing ICs  CPUs  CPUs are general-purpose ICs and can process perform a broad range of tasks, but they are not necessarily the most suitable for a certain task.
  GPUs  GPUs are general-purpose ICs and designed to accelerate the processing of images for computer displays. GPUs generally consist of more calculation cores than CPUs and are designed for handling a large number of similar types ofdata, which are usually images or numeric, and repeated calculation. GPUs are also designed to perform functions such as texture mapping, image rotation, translation and shading.
  FPGAs  FPGAs are designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing.
  ASICs  An ASIC is customized for a particular use and can offer enhanced speed and efficiency due to its specificity.
Other ICs  Memory  Memory is composed of dense arrays of parallel circuits that use their voltage states to store information such as the temporary sequence of instructions or programs for the microprocessor.

 

Source:F&S report

The IC industry, from upstream to downstream, contains many types of industry players, such as equipment suppliers,integrated device manufacturers, or IDMs, IC design suppliers, foundries and distributors. The

 

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midstream of the IC industry is mainly composed of IDMs and fabless business model. While IDMs, such as Intel and Samsung, usually design, manufacture and sell IC products by themselves, ICdesign companies utilize what is known as a fabless business model, whereby they cooperate with pure-play foundries for all phases of the manufacturing process of ICs. More specifically, under the fabless business model, IC design companies onlyprovide product specifications, algorithm design, front-end and back-end verification, assembly as well as chip testing if necessary without the fabrication of ICs, and they outsource the fabrication, packaging and testing of ICs to reliablethird-party foundries, such as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), Global Foundries, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), and Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), which operate for the purpose offabricating the designs of IC design companies.

According to the F&S report, the global sales revenue of the IC industry experiencedfluctuations and increased from US$343.2 billion in 2017 to US$462.9 billion in 2021, representing a CAGR of 7.8%, and is expected to reach US$700.7 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 8.6% between 2021 and 2026, driven by the emergence of cutting-edgetechnologies such as 5G, Internet-of-things and cloud computing and the need for products to be implanted with more chips, memories and other IC products. The following table shows the total global market size of the IC industry measured by salesrevenue for the years indicated:

 

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Source: WSTS, F&S report

Fabless IC Design Market

Fabless ICdesign means that a company designs and markets the hardware and semiconductor chips without the manufacturing process of the silicon wafers or chips used in its products; instead, it outsources the fabrication to a third party for manufacturing,either a pure-play foundry or an IDM that sells excess fab capacity.

Benefiting from going fabless, IC production facilities can avoidsignificant capital expenditure and costs. According to the F&S report, the global sales revenue of the fabless IC design market increased from US$101.5 billion in 2017 to US$169.0 billion in 2021, representing a CAGR of 13.6%, and isexpected to reach

 

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US$343.3 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 15.2% between 2021 and 2026. At the same time, under the influence of the global preference over the fabless model, the sales revenue of the fabless ICdesign market in China increased from RMB72.6 billion in 2017 to RMB181.3 billion in 2021, representing a CAGR of 25.7%, and is expected to reach RMB468.6 billion by 2026 at a CAGR of 20.9% between 2021 and 2026. The following table shows the totalglobal market size of fabless IC design market measured by sales revenue for the years indicated:

 

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Source: F&S report

The following table shows the market size of fabless IC design market in China measured by sales revenue for the years indicated:

 

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Source: F&S report

Key Drivers for the Fabless IC Design Market

The key drivers for the continuous development of the fabless IC design market include:

 

  

Substantial market demand. The growth of the IC industry is closely related to the semiconductor industry.In the past, semiconductors were mainly used in smartphones, personal computers, communications and automotive semiconductors. Driven by the advancement of technology such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence and Internet-of-things, present-day semiconductors have more new application scenarios, such as image recognition, voice recognition and intelligent driving. Therefore, emerging industries and hardware devices, such as smart wearabledevices including smartwatches,

 

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bracelets, headphones and smart homes, have driven the demand for IC design, which brings a new development opportunity for the global IC design industry.

 

  

Further segmented IC industry. With the increasing technical difficulty of semiconductor manufacturing,the pain point faced by the traditional IDMs of being relatively large-scale with high operating expenses and a low return on capital has become increasingly prominent. The fabless business model can separate IC manufacturing and design to improvethe efficiency of manufacturing and solve the pain points faced by the traditional IDMs. As a result, fabless business model emerged, which will further drive the segmentation of the IC industry.

 

  

Popularity of being application specific. To enhance the competitiveness of products, the industrialstandards for IC design shifted from the pursuit of a single factor to the combination of high performance, small surface area, and low power consumption. While CPUs, as general-purpose ICs, have the greatest programmability and flexibility, theyalso have the weakness of highest power consumption. ASICs have thus emerged and become more popular because of their high-efficiency advantage.

Key Trends of Fabless IC Design Industry

With the digital transformation of the global economy, the semiconductor market has entered a phase of robust growth. With the development ofthe semiconductor industry, fabs will continue to expand in the direction of large-scale wafers and mini processors in the future, and the capital investment required for fabs construction will increase as a result, raising the barriers for enteringthe IC manufacturing industry. However, the barriers of the IC design industry will reduce due to the further segmentation of the industry chain. At the same time, because the fabless business model requires less capital investment than fabs, and ithas the highest flexibility to address dynamic markets, more startups will choose the fabless business model, making such a model more popular.

Competitive Landscape of Global Fabless IC Design Market

The IC design industry is characterized by rapid launches of new products, continuous technological advancements, and fast changes in markettrends and customer preferences, all of which lead to a short life cycle and a general decrease in the average selling prices of IC products over time. While IC design has a wide range of applications such as for personal, enterprise and industrialuses, the most common application is consumer electronics. Over half of the top ten IC design companies compete for market shares of small-size and high-level ICs to be used in smartphones and personal computers. At the same time, as numerousentrants focus on the high-tech industry, applications of IC design in the field of the data center, Internet-of-things and artificial intelligence are expected to be market drivers for the following years.

The global IC design market is relatively concentrated, as leading players accounted for a majority share of the total market from 2013 to2018, during which those companies largely contributed to the gradual increases of the total market size. While U.S.-based companies including Broadcom, Qualcomm, and Nvidia initially dominated the largest share of the global IC design market,China’s IC design companies have been catching up with increasingly larger market shares in recent years, due to the development of design and manufacturing technology and government supports. The IC design market in China has experiencedsteady growth in revenues and a rapid increase of market shares. According to China Semiconductor Industry Association, the number of IC design companies has surged from 582 in 2010 to approximately 2,218 in 2020.

 

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OVERVIEW OF BLOCKCHAIN APPLICATIONS WITH FABLESS CHIPS

Cryptocurrency Mining Machine Industry

Overview ofCryptocurrency

Blockchain technology was first utilized for Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency that is created and managed through advancedencryption techniques. Cryptocurrency utilizing blockchain technology has several characteristics that differentiate it from traditional fiat currencies:

 

  

irreversible, as verified transactions once added to the blockchain become very difficult to undo;

 

  

pseudonymous, as transactions and accounts are not linked to real-world identities;

 

  

secure, as users access their accounts and transactions through private cryptographic keys which cannot bedeciphered from public information; and

 

  

global, as transactions are not limited by physical location.

While cryptocurrencies share the above characteristics, different cryptocurrencies utilize different algorithms and cryptographies to optimizefor certain functions such as faster processing speed or greater accessibility. Some are aimed at solely functioning as a currency to purchase goods and services, others are created for supporting a specific blockchain platform, such as smartcontracts. Aside from their intended uses, some cryptocurrencies may be treated as an asset, which can be traded based on its valuation. The following table shows the classification of cryptocurrencies:

 

Type

  

Description

Currency cryptocurrency  Currency cryptocurrency is used as currency in economic activities and removes the centralized control of the banks
Application-based cryptocurrency  Application-based cryptocurrency creates a basic space on which development can be carried out in various directions
Platform-based cryptocurrency  Platform-based cryptocurrency is a kind of cryptocurrency that is built on the application-based cryptocurrency

According to the F&S report, as of December 31, 2021, the total aggregate market capitalization ofcryptocurrency was approximately US$2,251 billion, which represented a 194.9% increase from approximately US$763.4 billion as of December 31, 2020. Bitcoin accounted for approximately 40.2% of the market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies, orapproximately US$905.3 billion as of December 31, 2021, according to the same source. In addition, other cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and Grin have also emerged. The market capitalization of the second-largest cryptocurrency, Ethereum,increased from approximately US$84.7 billion as of December 31, 2020 to approximately US$455.7 billion as of December 31, 2021, accounting for approximately 20.2% of the market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies as of the same date. Thefollowing chart shows the total market capitalization for all cryptocurrencies as of December 31 of each year from 2017 to 2021:

 

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Source: F&S report

 

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The cryptocurrency industry is sensitive to changes in regulatory regimes. Regulatorsworldwide have taken different approaches toward the cryptocurrency industry in general. Many countries have shown cautionary acceptance toward the cryptocurrency industry.

Value Chain of Cryptocurrency Computing Services

The cryptocurrency ecosystem consists of five main parts, including mining hardware suppliers, mining farms, mining pool service providers,trading software and hardware providers and payment service providers. Among them, mining hardware suppliers mainly focus on mining IC design, mining machine manufacturing and sales of mining machines. The mining machine manufactured and sold bymining hardware suppliers refers to the mining hardware specifically designed for mining cryptocurrencies. There are four main hardware categories based on the types of chips they utilize, i.e., CPU, GPU, FPGA and ASIC.

ASIC mining hardware has to date become the most widely used mining hardware due to its exceptional computing power and relatively low energyconsumption. AISC can solve the most complex tasks quickly as it is specifically designed to execute a hashing algorithm and intended to perform only one specific task. ASIC mining machine is, therefore, considered more efficient and powerful thanCPU and GPU mining machine.

Key Drivers of Cryptocurrency Mining Machine Industry

The key drivers for the cryptocurrency mining machine market include:

Increased market recognition and adoption of cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency is widely used for different purposes. Some are used ascurrency to purchase goods and services, and some are used to support a specific blockchain platform, such as smart contracts. Taking Bitcoin as an example, it has gradually been regarded as an alternative to cash and accepted by many companies. Thenumber of companies receiving Bitcoin as a payment method has increased from 8,207 in 2016 to 15,174 in 2021.

Continuously upgradedcryptocurrency hardware. The emergence of ASIC-based mining machines provides miners with more options for cryptocurrency mining. Miners can either choose an ASIC-based or GPU-based mining machineaccording to their specific needs and budgets. The overall quality of mining machines also has shown a significant upgrade to the computing power, power efficiency and manufacturing process of chips. As a result, the upgraded mining machines willpromote the prosperity of the cryptocurrency mining machine industry.

Competitive Landscape in Cryptocurrency Mining Machine Industry

The global cryptocurrency mining machine industry is highly concentrated. However, there are emerging players that supply the mining machinesfor other types of cryptocurrencies, such as Ethereum and Grin.

Bitcoin Mining Machine (ASIC-based) Industry

Bitcoin mining machines are computers used for Bitcoin mining. This type of computer generally has a professional mining chip and is usuallyworked by installing a large number of graphics cards, which consumes a significant amount of power. Such Bitcoin mining machines download the mining software and then run a specific algorithm, by which Bitcoins can be obtained. While any computercan work as a mining machine, companies developed professional Bitcoin mining machines as the former has low mining efficiency.

Themarket of Bitcoin mining machines is a great representation of the whole cryptocurrency mining machine market. The ASIC-based mining machine is perfectly fit for Bitcoin mining because of its mining efficiency and cost-saving and its market hasgradually become mature in these years. The global market of ASIC-based mining machines for other types of cryptocurrencies, such as Ethereum and Grin, is currently in the beginning stage, representing a great potential for growth in the future.

 

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According to the F&S report, the market size of global Bitcoin mining machines(ASIC-based) increased from US$2.1 billion in 2017 to US$4.2 billion in 2021, representing a CAGR of 18.9%. Given the significant price increase in the second half of 2020 and the current high price of Bitcoin, the sales revenue of Bitcoin miningmachines (ASIC-based) is expected to increase significantly in 2021 and 2022. The market size of the global Bitcoin mining machine (ASIC-based) market is expected to reach US$9.3 billion in 2026, representing a CAGR of 17.2% between 2021 and 2026.The following chart shows the market size for global Bitcoin mining machine (ASIC-based) for the period indicated:

 

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Source: F&S report

Metaverse Industry

Overview of Metaverse Industry

Metaverse is a decentralized open platform based on public blockchain technology that encompasses digital assets and digitalidentities. By building a general technology platform that can be utilized by enterprises and individuals, Metaverse digitizes assets such as artworks and antiques, intellectual properties and rights to returns from financial instruments to improvemarket efficiency. Through the provision of smart contracts and digital identities, Metaverse connects standalone stores of value and forms a common internet of value.

The term Metaverse first appeared in Neal Stephenson’s 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash, where humans controlled avatars in avirtual reality world known as the Metaverse. Through avatars, one could interact and form relationships with others in the Metaverse. Modern life has become increasingly similar to the description of Neal Stephenson’s novel. As people spendmore time online, people’s work and life are gradually integrated with the Internet. We foresee a transition from the Internet of information to the Internet of value where an increasing number of digital assets transfers may take place onlineand avatars may become the new mainstream economic model.

Value Chain of Metaverse Industry

The value chain of Metaverse consists of seven major layers, including infrastructure, human interface, decentralization, spatial computing,creator economy, discovery, and experience. The infrastructure layer includes the technologies that enable the digital devices to connect to the network and delivering the content. In the human interface layer, digital devices are portable andconnected with each other, which lays a solid foundation for the great user experience in Metaverse. Decentralization, the third layer, benefits from the development of blockchain, edge computing, and artificial intelligence, is the process by whichthe activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group. Spatial computing enables real and virtual hybrid computation thaterodes the barriers between the physical and the virtual worlds. The creator economy layer contains all the technologies that creators use on a daily basis to craft the contents that people enjoy. The discovery layer contains ad networks thatintroduce people to

 

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discover new experiences. Experience, the seventh and last layer, is about the application of Metaverse, such as games, social networks and shopping.

 

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Source: F&S report

Key Drivers for Global Metaverse Market

The key drivers for the continuous development of global metaverse market include:

 

  

Accelerated transformation into online activities. As an increasing number of individuals andorganizations turn various activities online, the way people work, shop, study and entertain has undergone tremendous changes. People are satisfied with an increasing amount of real-life needs through the Internet. While the online transformation isa precondition for Metaverse, the increase in time and energy invested in the virtual space paves the way for its arrival.

 

  

Rapid technology development. The advanced network and computing power have facilitated the stabletransmission of information. 5G and AIoT have laid a solid foundation for the innovative application of Metaverse. The rapid development of cloud computing, along with the continuously upgraded data transfer speed, have made the cloud activities,such as cloud games, become a reality. In addition, innovative devices such as augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) devices powered by artificial intelligence have also achieved continuous upgrades, which enable usersto enjoy a better immersive experience.

Key Trends of Global Metaverse Market

Platforms provided by Metaverse allow people to gather in the virtual world regardless of location and time zone, such as currently availableonline events of art exhibitions, concerts and graduation ceremonies. In the future, people will be more familiar with various activities carried out online.

With the increase of online activities, Metaverse’s ecosystem becomes more mature in terms of games, art and music. Artists can useblockchain technology and digital currency to trade artworks, and game players can use digital tokens for virtual property transactions. Correspondingly, the scale and number of Metaverse users increase, thus forming a cross-industry Metaverse.Metaverse will be enriched by social, shopping and travel activities. Users can freely shuttle between different scenarios and platforms through such a cross-industry Metaverse. For example, the collaboration between the Sandbox and My NeighborAlice shows the trend of seeking synergy between different Metaverses. These co-existing Metaverses retain their own characteristics that are different from other Metaverses with some commonalities.

Overview of Global Distributed Rendering Market

In the Metaverse world, realistic and real-time visual effects are particularly important. Life-like characters, ingenious scenes and exquisiteworlds are inseparable from the blessing of large-scale rendering technology. The

 

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Metaverse’s high real-time, high interaction and high immersion virtual network world requires very demanding computing power of terminal devices. Distributed rendering provides an optimalsolution to shorten the rendering cycle by virtue of the characteristics of massive computing and flexible use and accelerates the arrival of the Metaverse. The following diagram demonstrates the technology architecture of distributed rendering:

 

LOGO

Source: F&S report

Key Drivers for Global Distributed Rendering Market

The key drivers for global distributed rendering market include:

 

  

Traditional rendering technology cannot satisfy the advanced rendering requirements. There are limits onwhat can be done rendering locally, on network, or even on the cloud. It is impossible to leverage GPUs throughout the world efficiently without the intervention of distributed system to track and manage render jobs.

 

  

Distributed rendering technology can utilize GPU power more efficiently. GPUs, the most efficientrendering hardware, are now a standard component on smart phones and PCs. However, the current system has many inefficiencies. A large amount of GPU power is being used in proof-of-work, or PoW, mining, where GPUs are used to solve arbitraryarithmetic functions in order to provide the base power and security for their respective crypto network. However, the PoW mining is inherently inefficient and the true power in GPUs is not fully utilized. Distributed rendering envisions a betterfuture, where the network is empowered by the vary works that GPUs are designed to do.

 

  

Distributed network can better store digital assets: There is no universally accessible storage locationfor artists and other creators to store their digital assets and prove whether the ownerships of such digital assets belong to their respective artists and other creators. Through the blockchain and the ledger-based storage protocol of thedistributed network, artists and other creators are able to store and access their designs and creations.

 

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LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN AND CEO

This letter embodies my personal understanding of the Metaverse, which do not necessarily represent or reflect our company’s views. Theinformation set forth in this letter is speculative in nature, has not been fully substantiated, and does not constitute investment advice. My intention is not asking you to agree but rather piquing thoughts and debate. If you are interested inlearning more about our company, I urge you to carefully read the accompanying registration statement on Form F-1, of which the prospectus forms a part, in its entirety, and in particular the section headed“Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the cautionary statements referred to under “Forward-looking Statements.”

Hello, Metaverse

The COVID-19 pandemic has closed the door to international travel, but the universe seems to have opened another window to us—the Metaverse. In this letter, I will discuss my understanding of the Metaverse from thefollowing aspects: new framework, new users, new economy, new organization, new infrastructure, and new law.

I. New Framework

A three-layer structure of the Metaverse has emerged.

Underlying Smart Network: Regardless of the high-bandwidth, low-latency evolutionof 5G and 6G networks, the artificial intelligence of things, or the edge computing and storage networks, distributed “meta-computing” enables artificial intelligence to empower everyone’s life events.

Access Layer-RobotPeople may seamlessly access two parallel worlds, using head-mounted VR/AR/MR, watches, headsets and even future brain computer interface.

Operating Layer-Blockchain: Decentralized, distributed, open source, smart contracts and other features are all endogenous tothe Metaverse. These features ensure that the Metaverse is “perpetual” and never goes down, and that the data are immutable, enabling them to be tokenized. Most importantly, the smart contracts offer the possibility to reach autonomy inthe Metaverse.

II. New Users

Thedefinition of a user in the Metaverse is an executor of a smart contract. Anyone who has access to the smart network can become a node. Users all have a wallet address, and all create and use tokens according to the smart contract in the Metaverse.

As a result, in the Metaverse, a user is no longer a “person with an ID,” but can be anon-player character, or NPC, one of your avatars, or any smart devices.

The Metaverse users arealso different from who are ordinarily perceived as the Internet users in that the former are also creators and builders. Every asset, such as virtual vestments and vehicles, in this new scene is a digital asset created by users and available fortrading. The network will also generate more native users.

III. New Economy

Non-fungible token, or NFT, decentralized finance, or Defi, and game finance, or GameFi, form animportant part of the Metaverse ecology. The Metaverse has facilitated the change in the role of the blockchain from a financial to a broader application underlay. Bitcoin is currently the largest value capture vehicle for this underlying layer, andEthereum is one of the most dominant underlying systems.

It is foreseeable that NFT may become the interactive carrier of the Metaverse.For DeFi, in the future, all traditional finance may evolve into “protocol-based” smart contracts. DeFi is the core of GameFi, NFT is the

 

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carrier to break through the Metaverse, and games are the content of GameFi. GameFi is a native form of interaction for the Metaverse, and everything in the Metaverse has the potential to become“Play to Earn” in the future. As a result, the entire life cycle of the Metaverse users could be digitized, capitalized, and NFTized.

IV.New Organization

DAO stands for “Decentralized Autonomous Organization,” a form of organization that encodes its managementand operation rules, operates autonomously without centralized control or third-party intervention, featuring openness, autonomous interaction, decentralization and complexity.

DAO aims to facilitate teamwork through collective ownership, allowing people to intervene frictionlessly in the Metaverse ecology withoutgeographical constraints and to collaborate more effectively. In the future, DAO may become the main organizational form of the Metaverse society, a new model of collaboration.

In the Metaverse era, it is possible that DAO-to-DAOinteractions will gradually replace corporatism.

V. New Infrastructure

The Internet currently faces many burning issues besides the commonly criticized monopoly problem: outage, severe computing power shortages,data explosion, etc. Compared to the traditional Internet, Meta-computing power requires a higher reliability, intelligence and flexibility:

Fundamental PoW computing power: I believe that blockchain network technology based on Bitcoin’s PoW consensus algorithmprovides the best practice for the secure perpetuation of computer systems. The blockchain PoW chips would require higher computing power and lower power consumption to maintain the security of the network and achieve green, energy-saving effects.

Distributed computing and storage system: Regardless of NFT, personal or institutional digital asset in the future, or thedigital asset created on IoT or GameFi, they all need blockchain technology for privacy computing and transaction validation. Algorithms, such as homomorphic encryption and multiple signatures, require the support of high throughput computing chips.

Artificial intelligence computing power: Regardless of front-end devicessuch as the VR/AR, and autostereoscopic displays, the Metaverse requires massive computing power for 3D real-time rendering in the future.

For the IT industry, with demand far outstripping supply, whether for AI computing power, storage, or network transmission, fab capacity willcontinue to face challenges.

VI. New Law

The Metaverse may bring us unprecedented practice among different aspects of the space-time arena, economy, organization and industry.

We may make some bold expectations, by assuming that the Industrial Age is a two-dimensional space,that the Internet Age is a three-dimensional space, and that the Metaverse Age can be thought of as a four-dimensional space or even more.

We may also venture to speculate that the value of the network can be illustrated asK×N3, where K is the value coefficient and N is the number of users of the system, rather than K×N2 as it is in“Metcalfe’s law” in the current network. Moreover, since the Metaverse can achieve hyperspace and hypertime interaction from the bottom to the top, with more nodes and connections, we may predict its value by totaling each layer ofnetwork values.

 

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VII. New Era

From the onset of the semiconductor industry in 2009, to the debut of the blockchain in 2012, and to the much-awaited emergence of theMetaverse, I took delight in experiencing the rapid technological development in the past decade.

Nowadays, people are attempting toduplicate the traditional world to the Metaverse. However, I believe the native Metaverse itself contains more creations. In the Metaverse age, I anticipate that innovation opportunities never seen before in human history could grow and flourish.Innovation could be born in a matter of seconds, and the Metaverse could be the crucible and touchstone of human technological innovation.

I am earnestly confident that the Metaverse will open a new era for humankind. To this end, it is my intention that Nano Labs will becommitted to developing the power of the Metaverse and walking among the key players to help the world explore and cognize the Metaverse. While my understanding of the Metaverse could be too simplistic or idealistic at the same time, it is my avidbelief that the best way to predict the future is to create from now. So, we venture on.

Respect to Satoshi. May I invite you all to joinme in saluting this golden age we live in!

Mr. Jianping Kong

Chairman and CEO of Nano Labs

 

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BUSINESS

Our Mission

Our mission is to provideubiquitous computing power to the Metaverse computing network with our fabless logic-memory integrated circuits.

Overview

We are a leading fabless IC design company and product solution provider in China. We are committed to the development of HTC chips, HPC chips,distributed computing and storage solutions, smart-NICs, vision computing chips and distributed rendering. We have built a comprehensive FPU architecture which offers solution that integrates the features of both HTC and HPC. Moreover, ourCuckoo series are one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 2.27 Tbps, as well as one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grin mining market. In June 2021, we establishedIPOLLO PTE. LTD., our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary in Singapore, to facilitate our business expansion in the overseas IC markets.

Thefabless model of semiconductor production has become increasingly popular as it allows companies to focus on IC design and avoids significant resource investments by sharing the existing manufacturing facilities of a third party. The market size ofthe global fabless IC design market, in terms of the sales revenue, increased from US$101.5 billion in 2017 to US$169.0 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 13.6%, according to the F&S report. Due to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies includingartificial intelligence, Internet-of-things, and blockchain, the market size of the global fabless IC design market is expected to reach US$343.3 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 15.2% between 2021 and 2026, according to the same source. Moreover, Chinahas taken a large share of the global fabless IC design market in recent years and experienced a steady growth in revenue due to the development of design and manufacturing technology and government support. According to the F&S report, themarket size of China’s fabless IC design market, in terms of the sales revenue, increased from RMB72.6 billion in 2017 to RMB181.3 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 25.7% and is expected to reach RMB468.6 billion in 2026 at a CAGR of 20.9% between2021 and 2026, according to the same source.

We have established an integrated solution platform covering three main business verticals,including HTC solutions, HPC solutions and distributed computing and storage solutions. Our HTC solutions feature our proprietary Cuckoo series chips, which have become alternative ASICs solutions for traditional GPUs. We released our firstgeneration of Cuckoo series, Cuckoo 1.0, in the second quarter of 2020, which is one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 2.27Tbps, as well as one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grin mining market. We completed the tape-out for Cuckoo 2.0 and launched the product in the fourth quarter of 2021 and are inthe design process of Cuckoo 3.0, which is expected to be completed in 2023. For our HPC solutions, we have completed the design of Darkbird 1.0 and have begun the delivery of Darkbird 1.0 in the first quarter of 2022.We are in the process of designing Darkbird 2.0. Our HPC solutions offer both HPC chips, Darkbird, and Bitcoin mining machine, iPollo. Our proprietary Darkbird chips embedded iniPollo can achieve high computing power with reduced size and increased power efficiency. In addition to HTC and HPC chips, we launched our Darksteel series, which can be applied to both industrial and commercial sectors by offeringdistributed computing and data storage solutions, in the fourth quarter of 2021. As of December 31, 2021, we had received RMB917.4 million (US$143.9 million) from the pre-sale of our products.

We stay at the forefront in IC design for the Metaverse computing network and have built prominent research and development capabilities. Wehave successfully designed our 40nm, 22nm and n+1 ASIC chips and our 38nm memory chip. Our unique Nano FPU design architecture allows us to develop HTC chips with superior computing power and high-power efficiency as compared to most traditionalGPUs available in the market. As of December 31, 2021, we had registered six software copyrights, four IC layout-design rights and five patents in

 

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China, and applied for registration of 24 patents in China. We enjoy a skilled talent pool and are committed to enhancing our technology leadership and upgrade our product solutions through ourhigh-caliber research and development team. As of December 31, 2021, our research and development team consisted of 80 engineers, researchers, programmers and data analysts and is led by Dr. Bingbo Li, our vice president and chief technologyofficer, who has extensive experience of over 10 years in the semiconductor industry.

Competitive Strengths

We believe that the following strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors.

Leading fabless integrated circuit design company and product solution provider in China

We are a leading fabless IC design company and product solution provider in China. We provide a rich product matrix consisting of HTC chips,HPC chips and distributed computing and storage solution. Moreover, our Cuckoo series are one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market with a maximum bandwidth of approximately 2.27 Tbps, as well as one of the firstmovers of ASIC-based Grin mining market. We were awarded the “Unicorn Company in IC Industry of the Year” in the 2021 China IC Billboard from the China Semiconductor Investment Alliance in recognition of our innovation capabilities andbreakthrough in the industry.

Our success is founded on our competitive advantage to develop HPC chips with superior computing power andhigh-power efficiency as compared to traditional GPUs. Leveraging on our unique FPU-2D technology, the power efficiency of our Cuckoo 1.0 reaches two to three times higher than most traditionalGPUs designed and unveiled in the market. The performance of our Cuckoo 2.0 is further improved to benchmark against most of the traditional GPU based solutions specifically designed for Ethereum cryptocurrency mining. Our Cuckoo 2.0has achieved an approximately 0.8 W/MHash ratio and approximately three to four times higher performance as compared to other available Ethereum GPU-based solutions in the market.

Ability to achieve a fast time-to-market with our FPU architecture

We stay at the forefront of HTC chips design with our unique Nano FPU architecture that consists of smart network on chip, or Smart-NOC, high throughput memory with 3D packaging, scalable and configurable computing cores and dynamic ultra-low power technology to optimize the performance, powerefficiency and costs of our products. With the FPU architecture and our computing chips design capability, we can realize fast product iteration, which provides us with a strategic advantage given that the performance requirements in FPU relatedservices continue to evolve rapidly.

Since we began our operation in 2019, we have made several cutting-edge technological innovations.It took us only around ten months since our operation to launch our first product, Cuckoo 1.0, which is one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market and one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grin mining market,according to the F&S report. Compared to other GPU based solutions in the market, our Cuckoo series have achieved higher computing power performance and increased power efficiency.

Our design capability and fast time-to-market are furtherevidenced by our applications for registration of 24 patents in China since 2019. We have accumulated valuable know-how in designing high-performance and high-power efficiency ICs, and as of the date ofthis prospectus, our research and development and core teams have sent six self-designed ICs for tape-out, three of which have completed the chip tests with the advanced manufacturing processes covered by our partnered IC foundries at a 100% successrate. The superior final test yield and high tape-out frequency demonstrates our strong design capabilities. With the highly advanced process technologies in place, we launched B1L in the first quarterof 2022 and expect to launch more models for B1 Series in or around the third quarter of 2022.

Strong supply chain management capabilities

We have established strong supply chain management through partnerships with leading global production partners for ourmanufacturing process. As of date of this prospectus, our research and development and core

 

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teams have completed tape-outs for six self-designed ICs, three of which have completed the chip tests with the advanced manufacturing processes covered by our partnered IC foundries at a 100%success rate.

As our production volume gradually increases, we will source various product components from different foundries whilesecuring a favorable price and production capacity allocation. By diversifying our suppliers, we will be able to mitigate supply chain risks and better meet fluctuating demand. We believe we are one of the few companies that have developed suchstrong relationships with these world-leading suppliers, leveraging our advanced research and development capabilities, our industry reputation, and the business opportunities our products may bring to our partners.

Ability to capture the market growth of Metaverse and its application scenarios

According to F&S report, the market size of the global fabless IC design market increased at a CAGR of 9.3% from US$90.5 billion in2016 to US$129.0 billion in 2020, and is expected to reach US$193.3 billion at a CAGR of 8.4% between 2020 and 2025.

Leveragingour industry vision and precise judgment, we expect increased growth prospects in the Metaverse field, such as blockchain, privacy computing, distributed computing and storage, data center, vision computing and distributed rendering.

Our Cuckoo 1.0 is one of the first near-memory HTC chips available in the market and one of the first movers of ASIC-based Grinmining market. In addition to those chips under our Cuckoo series specifically designed for cryptocurrency mining activities, our technology and design in the HTC and HPC solutions can be applied to wide range of applications, includingprivacy computing during the processing of video, audio, image, graph, numerical value, and behavior information flow in a pervasive network. Our accumulated experiences in IC design also lay a solid foundation for the development of Metaversecomputing network.

Visionary management team and talented research and development team

Our management team believes that emerging technologies such as cloud computing, blockchain, artificial intelligence and big data have greatpotential to drive the computing industry into an epoch, which, we believe, not only requires improved computing power and memory performance but also data stream transmission efficiency, and they are passionate about leveraging their industry know-how to explore and bring more applications in Metaverse into reality. Our visionary management team has formulated a clear strategy to integrate high computing power, high memory bandwidth, and high data flowefficiency into our products, which has continuously guided our development.

Our chairman and chief executive officer, Mr. JianpingKong, is a well-recognized leader in the semiconductor industry, with more than ten years’ industry experience. Mr. Jianping Kong invested and acted as a co-chairman of a U.S. listed company engagedin semiconductor industry. The Vice chairman, Mr. Qifeng Sun, also has approximately ten years’ working experience in the blockchain industry. Our president, Mr. Nan Hu, is an expert of system on chip and autostereoscopic 3D displaysystem with more than ten years’ experience in the semiconductor industry. Our senior vice president, Mr. Huawei Kong, is a highly respected industry thought leader and expert in the HPC field. Prior to joining us, Mr. Huawei Kong hadjoined Shanghai Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 2005. Our vice president and chief technology officer of Zhejiang Haowei, Dr. Bingbo Li, is also an industry veteran with extensive experience inseveral key players in global semiconductor industry, such as Nokia Siemens Networks and Trident. Our senior vice president, Mr. Bing Chen, is a senior executives and industry expert. He has served as a senior manager in one of the China’sFortune 500 companies, with rich experience and deep industry understanding in the field of corporate management and financial management. Our senior management team also possesses complementary expertise in IC and software development withprofessional experience from leading semiconductors corporations.

 

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We also have a dedicated research and development team. As of December 31, 2021, ourresearch and development team consisted of 80 engineers, researchers, programmers and data analysts, accounting for 66% of our total employees, and led by Dr. Bingbo Li, our vice president and chief technology officer, who has extensiveexperience of over ten years in the semiconductor industry. Among our research and development personnel, approximately 46% of them hold a master degree or above. Core members of our research and development team all have more than ten years ofrelevant industry experience.

Growth Strategies

We intend to grow our business using the following key strategies.

Enhance our research and development capabilities

We believe our competitiveness is driven, to a large extent, by our advanced technologies and our research and development capabilities. Wewill further strength the collaboration between our research and development team and marketing team to accumulate and transform insights gained from practical experience into research and development capabilities, and in turn, new productprototypes. With our determination to strengthen our research and development capabilities, we are confident that we are well-positioned to promote technological innovations in our core chip products and continue to optimize the computingperformance of our chip products. We also plan to strengthen our collaboration with business partners, such as hardware and software vendors, IT service providers and investment companies. Capitalizing on the synergies of the business network andfinancial resources of these partners with our research and development capabilities, we aspire to further upgrade our research and development infrastructure in order to stay at the forefront of industry innovation.

Strengthen and expand the application of our chip products and solutions

Leveraging on our in-depth experience and industry insights in the IC industry and our accumulatedunderstanding of market trends, we plan to expand the application scenarios, including data centers and vision computing, by enhancing the quality and variety of our chip products and solution offerings to better serve existing customers and attractnew customers. We are currently designing our smart-NIC which can be applied to Internet data centers to boost storage capacity and performance. Moreover, we are planning to design our vision computing chip,which is expected to be used in autostereoscopic 3D display and sensing system for the interactivity of Metaverse and expand into the distributed rendering market by developing our proprietary Metaverse computing network platform,Ipolloverse. To this end, we intend to enhance the effectiveness of, and add new features to, our existing products and solutions, and continue to develop new types of products and solutions. We believe the industry drivingforces and our customer-oriented approach will allow us to timely react to the evolving market trends and business needs, and develop innovative, customized solutions to our customers’ satisfaction complementary with our enhanced chip products.By accumulating insights from our research and development of new chip products and solutions and the evolving market trends, we believe that we are well equipped to apply our computing expertise to better embrace the upcoming Metaverse ecosystem.

Selectively pursue international expansion

We see great potentials in expanding our business and promoting our products and solution offerings globally. We intend to explore additionalmarket opportunities and facilitate the overseas business development and expansion of our strategic partners and customers. In particular, we will focus on North America, Northern Europe, and Middle East and Southeast Asia, where the HPC andHTC markets present attractive opportunities. In June 2021, we established IPOLLO PTE. LTD., our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary in Singapore, to facilitate our business development and expansion in the overseas computing chip markets. In additionto expand our global customer base, we plan to strategically engage in overseas manufacturers, such as manufacturers in Southeast Asia, to improve the stability of our global supply chain and mitigate the tariff-related risks.

 

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Enhance our supply chain management

We plan to enhance our supply chain capability, including production management, design quality, working capital efficiency and final testyields. We also plan to strengthen our supply chain management capability by upgrading our relationships with production partners, such as establishing direct communication with teams in charge of production decision-making at our suppliers andenhancing our bargaining power. We will selectively explore collaboration opportunities with new partners who have leading technologies and sufficient capacities to enhance our production flexibility and operating efficiency.

Attract, cultivate and retain a talented and professional workforce

We believe that a significant part of our success is attributable to our ability to select, develop, motivate and retain our talented andprofessional workforce. We will continue to strengthen our research and development capabilities and proactively recruit, retain and train our research and development staff. We will also continue to focus on cultivating the industrial knowledge ofour workforce with training and professional development programs, collegial working environment, competitive compensation structure as well as internal promotion opportunities to enhance their creativity, loyalty, job satisfaction and cohesiveness.

Our Business Model

We are a leadingfabless IC design company and product solution provider in China. We engage in the front-end and back-end of IC design, which are the major components of the IC productdevelopment chain. We have established an integrated solution platform covering three main business verticals, including HTC solution, HPC solution and distributed computing and storage solution. We have introduced to the market our iPollominer, which are built on our proprietary Cuckoo and Darkbird chips. Leveraging our strong designing capability, we may also provide IC design services to satisfy the specific needs from our customers.

The following diagram sets forth an illustration of the production process of our IC products:

 

LOGO

We design our IC products in-house. We determine the parameters ofthe IC products, establish the basic logic of the design, map out the initial plan for the physical layout, and conduct back-end verification on the

 

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design. Our strong design capability has ensured that we have achieved a 100% tape-out success rate as of the date of this prospectus. We then collaboratewith industry-leading suppliers to fabricate, test and package the IC products we design. For HTC and HPC solutions, we may, through third-party logistics service providers, deliver the standalone chips or the assembled final blockchain miningmachines to customers, per the requests from customers.

Our Nano FPU Architecture

The development of emerging technologies such as cloud computing, blockchain, artificial intelligence and big data is expected to drive thecomputing industry into an epoch, which, we believe, not only requires improved computing power and memory performance but also data flow efficiency. The Nano FPU architecture embodies our vision of the future trend of high throughput computing andhigh-performance computing. The Nano FPU architecture is designed for maintaining the reusability and iterability of IP cores and adapting to the fast-evolving market demand for high performance computing.

The following graphic sets forth an illustration of the Nano FPU architecture:

 

 

LOGO

The Nano FPU architecture primarily consists of four types of basic modules, i.e., Smart-NOC, HBM 3D controller, FPU core and ulPower DVS. Unlike traditional CPU and GPU architectures, our Nano FPU architecture aims to optimize data flow and increase energy consumption efficiency. Smart-NOC enables cache memory to be shared in multicore processing units, which increases the efficiency of data exchange between CPU and memory. HBM 3D controller is designed to increase the data transmissionefficiency between DRAM and CPU, and our self-defined high bandwidth memory has a bandwidth ten times as much as traditional HBM 2.0 (4-Hi). FPU core is the processing core for data stream optimization that isupgradable locally or as a whole in a multi-core system to meet different computing needs. Finally, ulPower DVS applies our proprietary dynamic voltage scaling technology, which significantly optimizes the PPA of our chips and lower the total costof ownership of our products. These IP cores are both separately upgradable and compatible with each other in terms of integration, allowing for great flexibility in application for the Nano FPU architecture.

We have built our Nano-FPU architecture and achieved fast iteration from Cuckoo 1.0 toCuckoo 2.0. We are in the process of designing Cuckoo 3.0, which is expected to be the architecture for the next generation of our Cuckoo series.

 

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Our Products

HTC Solutions

Our HTC solutionsfeature our proprietary Cuckoo series chips, which integrate high-bandwidth memory dies and high computing performance logic chips and have become alternative ASICs solutions for traditional GPUs. Our Cuckoo 1.0 and Cuckoo 2.0strategically target the ASIC-resistant mining algorithms of cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and Grin, which requires high speed, high bandwidth memory in exchange for mining efficiency.

In the second quarter of 2020, we launched Cuckoo 1.0, one of the first commercialized Grin mining ASIC chips in the world, accordingto the F&S report. Built on our proprietary Nano-FPU 1.0 architecture and 22nm process, Cuckoo 1.0, equipped with our proprietary high bandwidth memory chip, provides a memory bandwidth of asmuch as 2.27 Tbps. The overall Grin mining efficiency and energy consumption efficiency of a Cuckoo 1.0’s is approximately 100 W/Graph. Based on Cuckoo 1.0, we launched iPollo G1 Grin mining machine with 30 Cuckoo1.0 chips in a single machine, whose computing power amounts to approximately 36 Graph/s, and iPollo G1 mini, whose compact size and superior energy consumption efficiency makes it a great choice for Grin home miners.

In the second quarter of 2021, we completed the tape-out of Cuckoo 2.0, which is the largestHTC chip in the world, according to the F&S report. Cuckoo 2.0 marks a significant step forward from Cuckoo 1.0 as it comes with a memory bandwidth of 24 Tbps, approximately 12 times as much as that of Cuckoo 1.0. Theoverall mining efficiency and energy consumption efficiency of a Cuckoo 2.0 is estimated to be 0.8 W/MHash. Based on Cuckoo 2.0, we developed iPollo V1 Series ETC/ETH mining machines, which encompass multiplemodels catering to different customer demands, including iPollo V1, V1 mini, V1 Classic, V1 mini Classic and V1 mini Classic Plus. Taking iPollo V1 as an example, it comes with 12 Cuckoo2.0 chips in a single machine whose computing power amounts to approximately 3.6 GH/s. Benefiting from the Nano FPU architecture, iPollo V1 has an energy consumption of 0.86 W/MHash, significantly lower than other Ethereum miningmachines on the market, according to the F&S report. We launched the first two products in the iPollo V1 Series, iPollo V1 mini Classic and iPollo V1 mini Classic WiFi, in the first quarter of 2022. We further launched othersix products in our iPollo V1 Series in the second quarter of 2022.

We are in the design process of Cuckoo 3.0, which isexpected to be completed in 2023. We expect Cuckoo 3.0 to be an enhancement of Cuckoo 2 and programmable, which provides more flexibility to a wide range of application scenarios.

HPC Solutions

To accommodate thestrong and growing demand for mining solutions, we have also completed the design and tape-out of Darkbird 1.0 HPC chips. Benefitting from our proprietary technologies, Darkbird series HPC chipsfeature high performance and high energy consumption efficiency.

 

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The following table sets forth certain information of the HTC and HPC chips we have designedor taped out as of the date of this prospectus:

 

HTC Chip

  

Cryptocurrency

  

Feature

  

Status

Cuckoo 1.0

  Grin and MWC  Nano FPU 1.0 architecture; high performance and high throughput; superior mining efficiency compared to traditional GPUs  Launched in the second quarter of 2020

Cuckoo 2.0

  ETH and ETC  Nano FPU 2.0 architecture; high performance and high throughput; superior mining efficiency compared to traditional GPUs  Launched in the fourth quarter of 2021

HPC Chip

  

Cryptocurrency

  

Feature

  

Status

Darkbird 1.0

  BTC and BCH  High energy consumption efficiency; optimized process and fundamental cells; customized circuit and physical design  

Launched in the first quarter of 2022

The following table sets forth certain specifications of the iPollo blockchain mining machines we havelaunched or are ready to launch as of the date of this prospectus:

 

Blockchain

Mining Machine

  

ASIC

  

Computing
Power (±10%)

  

Energy

Consumption
(±10%)

  

Status

Grin

        

G1

  Cuckoo 1.0  36 Graph/s  78/Graph  Launched in the second quarter of 2020

G1 mini

  Cuckoo 1.0  1.2 Graph/s  100W/Graph  Launched in August 2020

Ethereum

        

V1

  Cuckoo 2.0  3.6 GH/s*  0.86 W/MHash*  

Launched in the second quarter of 2022

V1 mini

  Cuckoo 2.0  

0.3 GH/s

(300MH/s)*

  0.8W/MHash*  

Launched in the second quarter of 2022

V1 mini WiFi

  Cuckoo 2.0  

0.3 GH/s

(300MH/s)*

  0.8W/MHash*  

Launched in the second quarter of 2022

V1 Classic**

  Cuckoo 2.0  1.55 GH/s*  0.8W/MHash*  

Launched in the second quarter of 2022

V1 mini Classic**

  Cuckoo 2.0  0.13 GH/s (130MH/s)*  0.8W/MHash*  Launched in the first quarter of 2022

V1 mini Classic WiFi**

  Cuckoo 2.0  0.13 GH/s (130MH/s)*  0.8W/MHash*  Launched in the first quarter of 2022

V1 mini Classic Plus**

  Cuckoo 2.0  0.28 GH/s (280MH/s)*  0.96W/MHash*  Launched in the second quarter of 2022

V1 mini Classic Plus WiFi**

  Cuckoo 2.0  

0.28 GH/s (280MH/s)*

  0.96W/MHash*  Launched in the second quarter of 2022

 

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Blockchain

Mining Machine

  

ASIC

  

Computing
Power (±10%)

  

Energy

Consumption
(±10%)

  

Status

Bitcoin

        

B1

  Darkbird 1.0  78 TH/s*  45W/THash*  Expected to be launched in or around the third quarter of 2022

B1L

  Darkbird 1.0  60 TH/s*  50W/THash*  Launched in the first quarter of 2022

B1T

  Darkbird 1.0  60 TH/s*  50W/THash*  Expected to be launched in or around the third quarter of 2022

 

*

Based on the theoretical value of the design, which may not be the actual performance of the actual products tobe delivered to our customers.

**

For ETC mining only.

Distributed Computing and Data Storage Solutions

Distributed computing and data storage has emerged as a disruptor to the current centralized cloud computing and storage market in recentyears, as the decentralized model utilizes idle storage capacity in potentially any device in the world and spares users the risk of data loss as a result of central server failure. We have designed our own Darksteel series to store data overvarious distributed network to capture the potential growth in the distributed computing and data storage market. Our products in this series can be applied to both industrial and commercial sectors by offering distributed computing and data storagesolutions. Darksteel series solutions support popular distributed computing and data storage networks such as Filecoin.

Thefollowing table sets forth certain specifications of the Darksteel distributed computing and storage solutions we have designed as of the date of this prospectus:

 

Distributed

Computing and

Data Storage

Solution

  

Storage

  

Processor/Memory

  

Feature

  

Status

Darksteel S

  8 TB enterprise SSD  12 cores 24 threads dual CPU/128G DDR4  Dual hot-swappable power supplies; traffic enhancement and sharing; node drift; intranet enhancement; clustered deployment  Launched in the fourth quarter of 2021

Darksteel F

  36*16 TB HARD  2.2G CPU/64G DDR4/480G SSD  

576T ultra-high computing power; fusion of unique algorithm optimization; customized special chip

  Launched in the fourth quarter of 2021

Darksteel C

  60*16 TB HARD  XEON E5-2450 CPU/16G DDR4  Standard server with 6 NetApp storages; hot-swappable dual power supplies; 60 16t enterprise-class SAS disks; 960 TB storage; 5.76 PB cluster capacity  Launched in the fourth quarter of 2021

 

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Roadmap for Our Future Products and Services

The table below sets forth certain information about the IC products under development.

 

Product under Development

  

Feature

  

Status

HTC Solution

    

Cuckoo 3.0

  High bandwidth  Expected to be launched in 2023

HPC Solution

    

Darkbird 2.0

  Target power efficiency  Expected to be launched in 2022

Distributed Computing and Data Storage Solution

    

Darksteel 2.0

  High-capacity performance storage  Expected to be launched in 2022

We believe our strong in-house designing capability will enable us torealize fast iteration of our Nano-FPU architecture and chip designs b